Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex
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There are two types of connecting fibers ______ and ________. Two examples of connectors between hemispheres are _____ and ____. Two types of fibers for intrahemispheric connections are ______ and ______.
- Commissural (between hemispheres)
- Association Fibers (inside hemispheres)
- Corpus Callosum
- Anterior commissure
- Long association fibers (such as arcuate fasciculus)
- U-shaped fibers
Most ________ come from other parts of the cortex/subcortical areas, such as the _______. ________ will go to other cortical areas and to subcortical sites as well as the brainstem/spinal cord. They travel through the ______ ______ which is essentially an underground passageway.
- Internal capsule
Divisions of the Cortex
______ covers all the lobes, it makes up _____% of the cortex and has __ layers.
_________ is more primitive, it has ___ layers and it resides in the _________, _________, and _________.
- parahippocampal gyrus
- olfactory cortices
These make up ____ of all cortical cells, so they are the _____ numerous. It is the sole ________ cell of the cortex, it goes to _______ and _______ areas. They are ________ and communicate with the NT ________. The dendrites are found in the _____ ______ of the cortex, and in each layer, the ____ and _____ may change.
- top layer
These cells have subtypes, such as _______, _____, and ________. Most of these cells are __________. They are tailored for ______ connections, and tend to be _______.
- double bouquet, chandelier cell, and spiny cell
Each layer has its own unique _________. Some layers are thicker, some are thinner, some have dendrites, some have axons.
Layers of the neocortex not only differ _______, but also ________. For instance, the type of cells and cell layer differs between the primary motor cortex and somatosensory cortex. There is a distinct pattern of _______ and ______. In general, each _____ tends to have similar functions.
- External Granule
- External Pyramidal
- Internal Granule
- Internal Pyramidal
Brodman's Classification System
44 & 45
11, 10, 46, 9
41 & 42
19, 18, 17
20, 21, 37
- Vision- Parietal
- Vision- temporal
Areas of Neocortex
The neocortex includes these areas (4):
- Primary Sensory areas
- Primary motor area
- Association areas
- Limbic areas
___% of total surface area
Primary motor/sensory take of ___%
Association areas include any brain region receiving sensory input from ____ ____ one sensory _____.
Association areas function in (4):
All areas of the brain eventually project to _______ areas.
- more than
- planning, integrating sensory info, generating complex thoughts, language
Hemispheric Lateralization of Function
hemispheres communicate via the _________ and _________. Lateralization refers to the _________ between hemispheres. The test for cerebral dominance is called the ________. Basically, you anesthetize one of the carotid arteries and ask the client to ______ and _____, if ______ happens then _______.
- corpus callosum
- anterior commissure
- division of labor
- Wada test for lateralization of speech
- move fingers
- right hand stops and language stops
- left hemisphere dominant
___________ exist, for example (2).
- Right frontal lobe is larger
- left planum temporali is larger in about 65% of people. These people do better on verbal tasks. Clients that stutter usually have larger Right P. temporali.
- This argues for nature over nurture (or more bluntly put, evolution).
Hemispheric Specializations **Test**
Right hemisphere: Comprehending _______ perception, deciphering/employing ______ content of speech, prominent hemisphere in ____/______. Important for recognizing _______ in other people and _______ ________ of language. Also important in the perception of ______. Damage to the right hemisphere could result in _____ ______.
- figurative interpretations
- flat affect
These patients have normal (6):
These patients have abnormal (1):
Why might you do a corpus callosum cut?
Competition and Cooperation
Since the two hemispheres can no longer communicate, they cannot _____ or ______ each other any longer (like unbuttoning with one hand and buttoning with the other)
- sensation, movement, learning, memory, motivated behaviors, intelligence
- responses when stimuli are on one side of the body
- this surgery may reduce seizure episodes and keep seizure activity localized to one hemisphere (it decreases the intensity)
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