Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex

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Author:
juliemarie
ID:
251845
Filename:
Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex
Updated:
2013-12-09 21:19:32
Tags:
SLP neuro cerebral cortex speech language
Folders:
Neurology
Description:
Brief description of cerebral cortex role in speech and language
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  1. Hemispheric connections
    There are two types of connecting fibers ______ and ________. Two examples of connectors between hemispheres are _____ and ____. Two types of fibers for intrahemispheric connections are ______ and ______.
    • Commissural (between hemispheres)
    • Association Fibers (inside hemispheres)
    • Corpus Callosum
    • Anterior commissure 
    • Long association fibers (such as arcuate fasciculus)
    • U-shaped fibers
  2. Hemispheric Connections
    Most ________ come from other parts of the cortex/subcortical areas, such as the _______. ________ will go to other cortical areas and to subcortical sites as well as the brainstem/spinal cord. They travel through the ______ ______ which is essentially an underground passageway.
    • Afferents
    • Thalamus
    • Efferents
    • Internal capsule
  3. Divisions of the Cortex
    ______ covers all the lobes, it makes up _____% of the cortex and has __ layers. 
    _________ is more primitive, it has ___ layers and it resides in the _________, _________, and _________.
    • neocortex
    • 90
    • 6
    • allocortex
    • 3
    • hippocampus
    • parahippocampal gyrus
    • olfactory cortices
  4. Pyramidal Cells
    These make up ____ of all cortical cells, so they are the _____ numerous. It is the sole ________ cell of the cortex, it goes to _______ and _______ areas. They are ________ and communicate with the NT ________. The dendrites are found in the _____ ______ of the cortex, and in each layer, the ____ and _____ may change.
    • 2/3 
    • most
    • output
    • cortical 
    • subcortical
    • excitatory
    • glutamate
    • top layer
    • size
    • shape
  5. Nonpyramidal cells
    These cells have subtypes, such as _______, _____, and ________. Most of these cells are __________. They are tailored for ______ connections, and tend to be _______.
    • double bouquet, chandelier cell, and spiny cell
    • interneurons
    • shorter
    • inhibitory
  6. Neocortex Layers
    I
    II
    III
    IV
    V
    VI
    White Matter
    Each layer has its own unique _________. Some layers are thicker, some are thinner, some have dendrites, some have axons.
    Layers of the neocortex not only differ _______, but also ________. For instance, the type of cells and cell layer differs between the primary motor cortex and somatosensory cortex. There is a distinct pattern of _______ and ______. In general, each _____ tends to have similar functions.
    • Molecular
    • External Granule
    • External Pyramidal
    • Internal Granule
    • Internal Pyramidal
    • Multiform
    • Structure
    • vertically
    • horizontally
    • afferents 
    • efferents
    • column
  7. Brodman's Classification System
    44 & 45
    22
    38
    11, 10, 46, 9
    41 & 42
    19, 18, 17
    7
    20, 21, 37
    • Broca's
    • Wernicke's
    • Emotion
    • Cognition
    • Audition
    • Vision
    • Vision- Parietal
    • Vision- temporal
  8. Areas of Neocortex
    The neocortex includes these areas (4):
    • Primary Sensory areas
    • Primary motor area
    • Association areas
    • Limbic areas
  9. Association Areas
    ___% of total surface area
    Primary motor/sensory take of ___%
    Association areas include any brain region receiving sensory input from ____ ____ one sensory _____. 
    Association areas function in (4):
    All areas of the brain eventually project to _______ areas.
    • 95
    • 5
    • more than
    • modality
    • planning, integrating sensory info, generating complex thoughts, language
    • multimodal
  10. Hemispheric Lateralization of Function
    hemispheres communicate via the _________ and _________. Lateralization refers to the _________ between hemispheres. The test for cerebral dominance is called the ________. Basically, you anesthetize one of the carotid arteries and ask the client to ______ and _____, if ______ happens then _______.
    • corpus callosum
    • anterior commissure
    • division of labor 
    • Wada test for lateralization of speech
    • count 
    • move fingers
    • right hand stops and language stops 
    • left hemisphere dominant
  11. Anatomical Specialization
    ___________ exist, for example (2).
    This supports....
    • Asymmetries 
    • Right frontal lobe is larger
    • left planum temporali is larger in about 65% of people. These people do better on verbal tasks. Clients that stutter usually have larger Right P. temporali. 
    • This argues for nature over nurture (or more bluntly put, evolution).
  12. Hemispheric Specializations **Test**
    Right hemisphere: Comprehending _______ perception, deciphering/employing ______ content of speech, prominent hemisphere in ____/______. Important for recognizing _______ in other people and _______ ________ of language. Also important in the perception of ______. Damage to the right hemisphere could result in _____ ______.
    • spatial
    • emotional 
    • fear/anger
    • emotions
    • figurative interpretations
    • music
    • flat affect
  13. Split-Brain Patients
    These patients have normal (6):
    These patients have abnormal (1):
    Why might you do a corpus callosum cut? 
    Competition and Cooperation
    Since the two hemispheres can no longer communicate, they cannot _____ or ______ each other any longer (like unbuttoning with one hand and buttoning with the other)
    • sensation, movement, learning, memory, motivated behaviors, intelligence
    • responses when stimuli are on one side of the body
    • this surgery may reduce seizure episodes and keep seizure activity localized to one hemisphere (it decreases the intensity)
    • suppress 
    • influence

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