suborder of diptera, adults feed on vertebrate hosts
suborder of diptera, larvae develop in the tissue or organ
intermediate host for protozoan parasite Leukocytozoan
horses often become allergic. "queensland itch", "sweat itch", "sweet itch", "summer dermatitis".
Transmit heartworm (dirofilaria immitis). Also malaria (Plasmodium species), yellow fever and elephantitis among people
Deer fly, horse fly
mechanical trasmitters of anthrax, anaplasmosis and virus of equine infectious anemia
stable fly or biting house fly
mechanical vector of anthrax in cattle and EIA. intermediate host of Habronema muscae, a nematode found in stomach of horses
pinkeye in cattle
fly larvae are free-living but can act as a parasite on a host
completely dependant on host
Maggot eating habits
maggots ingest dead cells, exudate, secretions and debris but not live tissue.
Condition is known as fly strike or strike (larva in bacterial skin wounds or feces in matted haircoat
primary screwworm, cuterebra species, bot flies
veterinarians must report infestations to both state and federal authorities
anaphalaxis can occur if larvae is crushed during extraction
Bot flies of horses
larvae of botfly in stomach of horse.
Adult fly lays eggs on horse legs, horse licks, eggs hatch in mouth larvae penetrate cheeks and tongue, live there for a month, ulcerate teeth.
migrate to stomach, gastric myiasis. Attach to stomach wall, penetrate, cause peritonitis.
Pass in feces after 8-10 months, pupate in ground, become adults in a month
killed by freezing temperatures
Parasites in horses (4)
Equine stomach worms
strongyloides westerni (FOALS)
larvated ova (past-larvated)
Most frequently used method in parasitology
Most common floatation solution
best solution for giardia and protozoans
zinc sulfate solution (least distortion)
Types of solutions for parasitology
sugar and salt solutions, sodium nitrate, zinc sulfate
Best method for ova detection
2% glycerin technique
technique that concentrates larvae
strongyloides and aleurostrongylus
animal must be present, only performed on fresh sample before concentration method. Requested test, not routine.
Good for protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidium, amoeba.
swab rectal wall, roll on heated slide, heat fix, gram stain
fresh sample, before concentration method. Requested, not routine.
checks for protozoan like amoeba, cryptosporidium, ciliates, etc.
Second best for giardia in fresh stool
Checks for yeast
checks for nematodes
Test for fat
Sudan III stain on fecal, round, pinkish smooth globules.
Large numbers suggest pancreatic lipase deficiency
test for starch
direct stool with iodine
black/purple particles of various size and shape (sometimes radiating spokes)
ancyclostoma, uncinaria - hookworm
modified knotts test
concentration of microfilaria
mix 1 ml whole blood with 9ml of 2% formalin in tapered test tube. Spin down at 1300-1500rpm for 5 minutes. Pour off supernatant, add new methylene blue stain, drop on slide, coverslip on and examine at 10x
difficult to find on floats because they are intermittant shedders and heavy ova
often found with parasite infections because it is the body's way to get rid of unwanted parasites
parasite ova in diarrhea
less likely to be found in diarrhea because body fluids dilute sample including ova
antibodies to trypsin test for trypsin in serum, diagnoses EPI
Psittacine (seed-eater) fecal
gram positive bacteria
carnivore birds of prey fecal
gram negative bacteria
fecals for birds
yearly, should always have gram stain
leg of mite, can be short or long or segmented, help ID mite
internal parasites vs external parasites
fecal float solutions
Modified sheather's solution (sugar)
all 1.18-1.20 SG
martini glass on chem stand
sedimentation for larva.
strongyle, threadworm, hookworm, nematodes
Pfizer says anything non-parasite
In actuality, parasites or ova found in feces of animal that is not their host.
Pinworms are never found
in carnivores except as pseudoparasites
adulte mobile stage (often "falling leaf" motion)
protozoan flagellate (trophozoite or cyst)
now definitive host (any animal can carry)
Morphologically the same, infects different animals, called different things
high morbidity, low mortality
cysts are tiny, round nuclear structures with rod between them
DH: non-specific (all)
Thick-walled oocysts (80%), passed in feces
thin-walled oocysts (20%), auto-infection, on or under cells lining small intestine
Problems in calves (D), cell damage and FUSING OF VILLI in intestines. Valley Fever
No approved or affective treatment
zoonotic, epizootic and endemic worldwide
coccidia isospora, coccidia eimeria
Eimeria is smaller, isospora bigger
Isospora canis, DH is dog. Parenteric is mouse, rodent
Toxascaris leonina, canis, cati
roundworm, nematode parasite
direct cycle: tracheal migration
Pups infected in utero by mother through umbilical vessels in 3rd trimester. VERMINOUS PNEUMONIA