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2013-12-13 19:14:45
Clin Lab
Parasites in veterinary clin lab
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  1. Order of insects
    diptera.  "two wings"
  2. periodic
    suborder of diptera, adults feed on vertebrate hosts
  3. myiasis
    suborder of diptera, larvae develop in the tissue or organ
  4. black flies
    intermediate host for protozoan parasite Leukocytozoan
  5. sand flies
    horses often become allergic. "queensland itch", "sweat itch", "sweet itch", "summer dermatitis".
  6. Mosquitos
    Transmit heartworm (dirofilaria immitis).  Also malaria (Plasmodium species), yellow fever and elephantitis among people
  7. Deer fly, horse fly
    mechanical trasmitters of anthrax, anaplasmosis and virus of equine infectious anemia
  8. stable fly or biting house fly
    mechanical vector of anthrax in cattle and EIA.  intermediate host of Habronema muscae, a nematode found in stomach of horses
  9. Face fly
    pinkeye in cattle
  10. Myasis-producing flies
    larval stage
  11. Facultative
    fly larvae are free-living but can act as a parasite on a host
  12. obligatory
    completely dependant on host
  13. Maggot eating habits
    • maggots ingest dead cells, exudate, secretions and debris but not live tissue.  
    • Condition is known as fly strike or strike (larva in bacterial skin wounds or feces in matted haircoat
  14. obligatory flies
    primary screwworm, cuterebra species, bot flies
  15. primary screwworm
    veterinarians must report infestations to both state and federal authorities
  16. cuterebra species
    anaphalaxis can occur if larvae is crushed during extraction
  17. Bot flies of horses
    • larvae of botfly in stomach of horse.
    • Adult fly lays eggs on horse legs, horse licks, eggs hatch in mouth larvae penetrate cheeks and tongue, live there for a month, ulcerate teeth.  
    • migrate to stomach, gastric myiasis.  Attach to stomach wall, penetrate, cause peritonitis.
    • Pass in feces after 8-10 months, pupate in ground, become adults in a month
    • killed by freezing temperatures
  18. Parasites in horses (4)
    • bots
    • strongyles
    • ascarids (roundworms)
    • pinworms
  19. Equine stomach worms
    • summer sores
    • Habronema
  20. Ligament worm
  21. intestinal threadworm
    • strongyloides westerni (FOALS)
    • larvated ova (past-larvated)
  22. Most frequently used method in parasitology
    concentration methods
  23. Most common floatation solution
    sodium nitrate
  24. best solution for giardia and protozoans
    zinc sulfate solution (least distortion)
  25. Types of solutions for parasitology
    sugar and salt solutions, sodium nitrate, zinc sulfate
  26. Best method for ova detection
  27. Sedimentation methods
    2% glycerin  technique
  28. technique that concentrates larvae
    • Baermann Apparatus
    • strongyloides and aleurostrongylus
  29. Hot stool
    • animal must be present, only performed on fresh sample before concentration method.  Requested test, not routine. 
    • Good for protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidium, amoeba.
    • swab rectal wall, roll on heated slide, heat fix, gram stain
  30. direct stool
    • fresh sample, before concentration method.  Requested, not routine.
    • checks for protozoan like amoeba, cryptosporidium, ciliates, etc.
    • Second best for giardia in fresh stool
    • Checks for yeast
    • checks for nematodes
  31. Test for fat
    • Sudan III stain on fecal, round, pinkish smooth globules.
    • Large numbers suggest pancreatic lipase deficiency
  32. test for starch
    • direct stool with iodine
    • black/purple particles of various size and shape (sometimes radiating spokes)
  33. protozoan organisms
    • coccidia
    • cryptosporidium
    • giardia
    • amoeba
    • ciliates
  34. nematodes
    • roundworms
    • ascarids
    • strongyles, strongyloids
    • ancyclostoma, uncinaria - hookworm
    • trichuris-whipworm
  35. cestodes
    flatworms.  Tapeworms
  36. trematodes
    • flatworms
    • flukes
  37. modified knotts test
    • concentration of microfilaria
    • mix 1 ml whole blood with 9ml of 2% formalin in tapered test tube. Spin down at 1300-1500rpm for 5 minutes. Pour off supernatant, add new methylene blue stain, drop on slide, coverslip on and examine at 10x
  38. whipworms
    difficult to find on floats because they are intermittant shedders and heavy ova
  39. mucous
    often found with parasite infections because it is the body's way to get rid of unwanted parasites
  40. parasite ova in diarrhea
    less likely to be found in diarrhea because body fluids dilute sample including ova
  41. trypsin-like immunoreactivity
    antibodies to trypsin test for trypsin in serum, diagnoses EPI
  42. Psittacine (seed-eater) fecal
    gram positive bacteria
  43. carnivore birds of prey fecal
    gram negative bacteria
  44. fecals for birds
    yearly, should always have gram stain
  45. pedicle
    leg of mite, can be short or long or segmented, help ID mite
  46. internal parasites vs external parasites
    • external infest
    • internal infect
  47. cellophane method
  48. fecal float solutions
    • Modified sheather's solution (sugar)
    • all 1.18-1.20 SG
  49. baermann apparatus
    • martini glass on chem stand
    • sedimentation for larva.  
    • strongyle, threadworm, hookworm, nematodes
  50. pseudoparasites
    • Pfizer says anything non-parasite
    • In actuality, parasites or ova found in feces of animal that is not their host.
  51. Pinworms are never found
    in carnivores except as pseudoparasites
  52. Trophozoite
    adulte mobile stage (often "falling leaf" motion)
  53. giardia
    • protozoan flagellate (trophozoite or cyst)
    • now definitive host (any animal can carry)
    • Morphologically the same, infects different animals, called different things
    • intermittant shedding
    • high morbidity, low mortality
    • cysts are tiny, round nuclear structures with rod between them
  54. cryptosporidium
    • coccidian protozoa
    • DH: non-specific (all)
    • IH: NONE
    • Thick-walled oocysts (80%), passed in feces
    • thin-walled oocysts (20%), auto-infection, on or under cells lining small intestine
    • Problems in calves (D), cell damage and FUSING OF VILLI in intestines.  Valley Fever
    • No approved or affective treatment
    • zoonotic, epizootic and endemic worldwide
  55. coccidia isospora, coccidia eimeria
    • Eimeria is smaller, isospora bigger
    • Isospora canis, DH is dog.  Parenteric is mouse, rodent
  56. Toxascaris leonina, canis, cati
    • roundworm, nematode parasite
    • DH: dogs/canids
    • paratenic: rodents
    • direct cycle: tracheal migration
    • Pups infected in utero by mother through umbilical vessels in 3rd trimester.  VERMINOUS PNEUMONIA
    • indirect cycle: somatic migration (skeletal muscle, dormant state)
    • adults in small intestine, larvae in liver, lungs or somatic tissue
    • Zoonotic to children, Visceral Larval Migrans or Ocular Larval Migrans
  57. ancylostoma caninum
    • hookworm, nematode
    • DH: dogs, canids
    • IH: none, possible paratenic
    • infection by ingestion or skin penetration
    • day 4 parturition arrested larvae migrate to mammary glands and are ingested by nursing pups.  
    • Puppy pneumonia or peracute (puppy crashes with no sign of disease)
    • Visceral Larval Migrans
  58. uncinaria stenocephala
    • hookworm, nematode
    • DH: dog, canid, CAT
    • IH: none
  59. capillaria
    • oca have bi-polar operculum
    • bar striations in cell wall (high power)
  60. operculum
    ova have bi-polar plugs
  61. Trichuris vulpis
    • whipworm. 
    • DH: canids
    • Diarrhea is mucoid, intermittant
    • Infectious eggs live 5 years in soil, won't hatch until in definitive host.
    • ova has operculum
  62. capillaria aerorphilia, plica
    • lung worm, bladder worm. nematodes
    • DH aerophila: canids, felids. Plica=canids
    • aerophila in FOX COLONIES
  63. spirocerca lupi
    • esophageal worm, nematode
    • DH: dogs and cats, canids
    • Larvae make granulomatous nodules in esophagus
    • Occasional stomach nodules in cats
    • can be false-negative
    • paper clip shape for ova
    • endemic for dogs, reported in other animals and humans
  64. Strongyloid spp
    • tumefaciensis is feline intestinal threatworm
    • each host has own strain of parasite, horses, pigs, ruminants, cows, deer, reptiles, wild animals, zebras, baboons.
  65. strongyloides stercoarlis
    • nematode intestinal parasite
    • small larvated ova
    • DH: dog, fox, cat, primate, humans
    • IH: none
    • larvae can either become free-living or parasitic
    • Ingest or penetrate skin, tracheal migration
    • resemble viral disease of puppies, enteritis with erosion
    • Humans: zoonic (man to dog and dog to man), bouts of diarrhea followed by asymptomatic periods, lasts decades.
    • Baerman apparatus
  66. physaloptera
    • stomach worm, nematode
    • DH: dogs, cats, wild d/c
    • Most common in cat
    • Use sedimentation method, can use feces or vomit
  67. Trichiostongyle species
    nematode parasite, ova are larger than strongyle ova
  68. oxyuris ova
    • pinworm ova
    • nematode parasite
  69. enterobius vermicularis
    pinworm ova, nematode parasite
  70. aspiculuris tetraptera
    pinworm ova, nematode parasite
  71. oxyuris equi
    • pinworm ova of horses
    • one flattened side
  72. dipylidium caninum
    • cestode (tapeworm) parasite
    • DH: dog, cat, rarely human
    • IH: FLEAS (ctenocephalides felix), sometimes lice (trichodectes canis)
    • eggs: packets of up to 30 hexacanth embryos, with hooklets.
  73. Taenia (pisiformis)
    • DH: canids, felids
    • IH: rabbits, hares, mice/rodents
    • oncospheres (hexacanth embryos)
    • in IH, Taenia goes through BLADDER WORM STAGE
  74. oncospheres
    hexacanth embryos
  75. moniezia
    sheep tapeworm, cestode
  76. alaria
    • 2 IH, snail and tadpole
    • trematode, intestinal fluke
    • paratenic host bioaccumulates 
    • appear to coat lining of intestine
    • no zoonoses
  77. fasicola hepatica
    • liver fluke, trematode parasite
    • operculum
    • heavy ova, use sedimentation
  78. alerostrongylus abstrusus
    • nematode, cat lungworm
    • DH: cats
    • IH: snails and slugs
    • tracheal wash or Baermann apparatus to diagnose
  79. dirofilaria immitis
    • heartworm
    • KNOTTS TECHNIQUE to tell false heartworm from true
    • 0-25% of HW develop in cats
    • 40-90% of HW develop in dogs
  80. hemoproteus
    avia protozoan blood parasite (in RBC, nucleated)
  81. babesia canis
    intracellular protozoan blood parasite
  82. ehrlichia canis
    in WBC (neutrophil)
  83. avian plasmodium
    bird malaria, in penguins at zoo
  84. sucking louse, ID of louse
    • anoplura
    • THREE BODY PARS, head, thorax, abdomen.  Legs on thorax
  85. ticks
    • 2 families: argasidae (soft ticks) and ixodes (hard ticks)
    • vector for many diseases
    • 2 body parts, legs on abdomen
  86. mites
    • demodex
    • sarcoptic
    • cheyletiella (walking dandruff)
    • otodectes (ear)
  87. definitive host
    host that harbors the adult mature or sexual phase.
  88. Intermediate host
    harbors larval, immature or asexual stage, part of life cycle of parasite (cannot reproduce without IH).
  89. parateric host
    intermediate host in which NO DEVELOPMENT of the parasite occurs.  Also, transport host.
  90. Prepatent period
    time from inital infection to when infection can be detected (female produces eggs)
  91. enzootic
    a disease of animals which is indigenous to a CERTAIN LOCALITY
  92. epizootic
    a disease attacking a LARGE NUMBER of animals simultaneously
  93. zoonosis
    a disease or infection in MAN which is naturally transmitted from any vertebrate animal (like rabies)
  94. DPI
    days post infection
  95. tachyzoite
    RAPIDLY MULTIPLYING stage in the development of the tissue phase of certain coccidial infections (toxoplasmosis, acute infection)
  96. bradyzoite
    SLOWLY multiplying encysted form of sporozoan parasites (typical of chronic infection.  Toxoplasmosis)
  97. toxoplasma gondii
    • coccidian protozoa
    • DH: felidae (mostly domestic)
    • IH: all warm-blooded animals (or none)
    • Oocysts can survive in environment over a year
    • Zoonotic, uncooked meat and cat litter
  98. acanthoceilonema reconditum
    • false heartworm
    • DH: canids
    • IH: flea, tick, lice.  Several larval stages in IH
    • DH eats the flea (we think).
    • Cause eosinophilia and proteinuria and leukocytosis
    • acantho vs diro in microfilaria: a smaller, blunt anterior end, directional mvmt on wet mount, cephalic hook
  99. tracheal migration
    • larvae ingested, penetrate gut wall, migrate to lymph nodes then portal blood, venous circulation to lungs.  
    • Molt and migrate through alveoli, up bronchioles and trachea, swallowed, stomach.  Intestines, adult.
  100. Visceral Larval Migrans
    • nematode larvae in children, go from small intestine to liver to lings then to well vascularized somatic tissue.  
    • Children < 4 years
    • mild to life threatening symptoms
  101. Ocular larval migrans
    Single larvae of nematodes go to optic tract to retina, humors.  Can cause scarring and permanent damage to retina.  Loss of sight.  usually older children and young adults.
  102. Echinoccus (granulosus)
    • taeniid cestode, hydatid tapeworm
    • DH: dogs/canids
    • IH: HUMANS, sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, wild ungulates
    • Hyatid cysts develop in IH
    • Humans: SPAXE OCCUPYING LESIONS, causing impaired respiratory efficiency, anaphylaxis (rupture), spontaneous fracture of long bones
  103. paragonimus kellicotti
    • trematode, lung fluke
    • HAS 2 IH, snails and crayfish
  104. ctenocephalides felis
    • cat flea, most prevalent of all.  
    • Host spectrum, host preferential not host specific
    • Best in humid conditions, 85 degrees, 90% humidity
    • environmental hot spots, eggs, larvae, pupae (tolerant, 50 days), pre-emergent adults, emerge with stimuli
    • average 18-21 day life cycle but can take 20 months
    • High reproductive potential
    • cause anemia (both sexes suck blood)
    • Flea bite hypersensitivity (flea allergy dermatitis, FAD)
    • transmit acanthoceilonema reconditum, dipylidium caninum, bartonella henselae
  105. demodex
    • pups acquire mite from mom while nursing
    • Localized (squamous) or generalized (pustular-bad)
    • skin scrape below hair follicle.  Deep scrape
    • Humans have own demodex, do not get from animals
  106. sarcoptes scabiei
    • sarcoptic mange mite, contageous
    • scrape surface of skin lesion until blood, less deep.
    • each host has own strain/variety
    • Foxes severly effected
  107. Otodectes
    • ear mite, cats #1, dogs, ferret, fox, raccoon
    • transmission by direct contact
  108. chyletiella spp
    • walking dandruff mite
    • cellophane method
  109. Lice
    • infestation is called pediculosis
    • eggs are called nits
    • two types: mallophagia (biting or chewing lice) or anoplura (sucking lice)
    • Host specific
    • Nymphs hatch and molt several times before becoming adults
    • trichodectes canis, entire life cycle takes place on host.  Can be IH for dipylidium caninum
  110. dermacentor spp (hard tick), American dog tick, transmits
    • Rocky mountain spotted fever, St. Louis encephalitis, anaplasmosis, tularemia
    • Frequently parasitizes humans
  111. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, hard tick, brown dog tick, transmits
    • babesia canis, ehrlichia canis, anaplasma marginale, Rocky Mt. spotted fever, tularemia, pasteurella
    • Frequently infests humans
  112. Ixodes scapularis (hard tick, deer tick or black legged tick)
    • vector for transmitting lyme, ehrlichiosis, babesia, hemobartonella