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2013-12-08 23:04:00
Hominids Bio Anthro 120 Amato

Hominids Bio Anthro 120 Amato
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  1. Hominids, members of the taxonomic family Hominindae, may be distinguished from the apes by the following anatomical traits
    • Bipedal locomotion
    • Foramen magnum is locate anteriorly balanced in a vertical orientation appropriate for upright posture and movement
    • Vertebral column is S-shaped w/ spinal curves; the cervical curve and the lumbar curve - allow the weight of the body to be carried directly over the kneews and feet in the mid-line. The pelvic girdle is short and broad compared to apes, allowing the center of gravity to located in the pelvic basin.
    • The femur is also modified to bring the knees into the midline. Femur is angled inward from the hip to the knee where it articulates w/ the tibia at an angle - valgus knee

    • Large Brain Size
    • Reduced canine and diastema
    • Parabolic dental arcade (later hominids)
    • Reduced prognathism (facial projection)
    • No C/P3 hone/honing complex/Sectorial premolar
    • Thick molar enamel
  2. Gracile

    A. Afarensis

    • Found East Africa
    • Thick enamel
    • Bipedal
    • 400cc-550cc
    • increase in cranial & dental robusticity

    • A.anamensis
    • 4 mya
    • parallel tooth rows & C/P3 honing complex
    • canine is somewhat reduced

    • A. afarensis
    • bipedal
    • 400-500cc
    • pronounced sexualn dimorphism
    • canine and diastema are reduced
    • no CP3 hone
    • sagittal crest
    • temporol nuchal crest
    • flat cranial base
    • relatively prognathic
    • U- Shaped diastema

    • A. Africanus
    • slightly larger brain case (450-550cc)
    • lack of crest on the cranium and less prognathism molars are larger
    • no flaring of zygomatics
    • rounded vault
    • slightly smaller front teeth
  3. Robust Australopithecines

    A. Robustus

    A. Boisei

    A. aethiopicus
    • 450-550 cc
    • hard object feeding traits
    • sagittal crest
    • extreme post orbital constriction
    • large molars
    • large, robust mandible
    • widely flaring zygomatics
    • dished face for the attached of masseter muscle

    • A. Robustus
    • 2.5 - 1 mya
    • S size of incisor
    • L size of canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • Dish face
    • Sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatics

    • A. boisei
    • 2.5 - 1 mya
    • S size of incisors
    • L size of the cheek
    • S size of canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • Dish face
    • sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatic

    • A. aethiopicus
    • 2.6 mya
    • S size of incisors
    • L cheek teeth
    • S canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • dish face
    • sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatics
  4. Homo Habilis

    KNM-ER 1813

    KNM-ER 1470
    • 2.5-1.5 mya
    • Ethiopia, Kenta, Tanzania and South Africa
    • Large anterior tooth size
    • Small cheek tooth size
    • 500-775cc
    • No cresting
    • No dish face or wide zygomatics
    • Rounded occipital contour
    • No mandibular robusticity
  5. Homo Erectus
    • East Africa
    • 1.8 mya¬†
    • 700-1200 cc
    • thickened cortical bones in the limbs
    • a long and low cranium w/ sloping frontal bone
    • thickened regions on the cranium - cranial buttressing system includes a series of thickened ridges that give distinctive appearance. Serves as a biomechanical adaptation for absorbing stress on the cranium - meat based diet

    Supraorbital torus - prominent brow ridge above the eye orbits

    Sagittal keel - raised portion along the sagittal suture

    Occiptal torus - thickened ridge of bone running horizontally across the occipital bone

    angular torus - runs horizontally along the posterior/inferior portion of the parietal

    shovel shaped incisors - lingual side ofr the tooth has ridges along the edges creating a shovel common in Chinese specimens
  6. Stone Tools

    Oldowan/Acheulean tools
    • Oldowan tool industry
    • 1st stone tools
    • composed of predominantly cores, or flakes to create a sharp edge very sharp and useful to butchering animal carcasses
    • Hammer stones were also used to crack open the bones to extract the nutrient rich marrow.

    Crude in design, but created a new niche in animal resources

    • The Acheulean tool industry
    • used by H.erectus
    • 1.4 mya
    • bifacially worked - flakes removed from two opposing sides to create a sharp edge
    • made w/ a mental template
    • not simplistic
    • tool kit is composed primarily of an hand axe, tear drop shaped tool, w/ assorted cleavers
  7. Archaic Homo sapiens
    • retain large brow ridge arching than bar like
    • occipital torus
    • long low cranium
    • larger face than H.erectus
    • tooth size similar to modern humans

    • increased brain size 1200cc
    • Best known sites: Europe & Africa
  8. Neanderthals
    • Found in Europe and Middle East
    • largest brain size of any hominid species 1500cc but retained long low cranium
    • receding forehead and supraorbital torus (double arching browridge)
    • cold adaptations
    • shorter distal limb segments (forearm/lower leg)
    • midfacial prognathism
    • occipital bun
    • retromolar space
    • very large incisors w/ extreme dental wear
  9. Anatomically Modern Humans
    • large brain size 1400cc
    • high vaulted rounded cranium
    • vertical prominent chin
    • small jaws and teeth
    • lack of crests or tori on the cranium
    • slim gracile skeleton