Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Hominids, members of the taxonomic family Hominindae, may be distinguished from the apes by the following anatomical traits
    • Bipedal locomotion
    • Foramen magnum is locate anteriorly balanced in a vertical orientation appropriate for upright posture and movement
    • Vertebral column is S-shaped w/ spinal curves; the cervical curve and the lumbar curve - allow the weight of the body to be carried directly over the kneews and feet in the mid-line. The pelvic girdle is short and broad compared to apes, allowing the center of gravity to located in the pelvic basin.
    • The femur is also modified to bring the knees into the midline. Femur is angled inward from the hip to the knee where it articulates w/ the tibia at an angle - valgus knee

    • Large Brain Size
    • Reduced canine and diastema
    • Parabolic dental arcade (later hominids)
    • Reduced prognathism (facial projection)
    • No C/P3 hone/honing complex/Sectorial premolar
    • Thick molar enamel
  2. Gracile

    A. Afarensis

    • Found East Africa
    • Thick enamel
    • Bipedal
    • 400cc-550cc
    • increase in cranial & dental robusticity

    • A.anamensis
    • 4 mya
    • parallel tooth rows & C/P3 honing complex
    • canine is somewhat reduced

    • A. afarensis
    • bipedal
    • 400-500cc
    • pronounced sexualn dimorphism
    • canine and diastema are reduced
    • no CP3 hone
    • sagittal crest
    • temporol nuchal crest
    • flat cranial base
    • relatively prognathic
    • U- Shaped diastema

    • A. Africanus
    • slightly larger brain case (450-550cc)
    • lack of crest on the cranium and less prognathism molars are larger
    • no flaring of zygomatics
    • rounded vault
    • slightly smaller front teeth
  3. Robust Australopithecines

    A. Robustus

    A. Boisei

    A. aethiopicus
    • 450-550 cc
    • hard object feeding traits
    • sagittal crest
    • extreme post orbital constriction
    • large molars
    • large, robust mandible
    • widely flaring zygomatics
    • dished face for the attached of masseter muscle

    • A. Robustus
    • 2.5 - 1 mya
    • S size of incisor
    • L size of canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • Dish face
    • Sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatics

    • A. boisei
    • 2.5 - 1 mya
    • S size of incisors
    • L size of the cheek
    • S size of canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • Dish face
    • sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatic

    • A. aethiopicus
    • 2.6 mya
    • S size of incisors
    • L cheek teeth
    • S canine
    • No diastema
    • No sectorial premolars
    • 450-550cc
    • No projecting face
    • dish face
    • sagittal crest
    • flaring zygomatics
  4. Homo Habilis

    KNM-ER 1813

    KNM-ER 1470
    • 2.5-1.5 mya
    • Ethiopia, Kenta, Tanzania and South Africa
    • Large anterior tooth size
    • Small cheek tooth size
    • 500-775cc
    • No cresting
    • No dish face or wide zygomatics
    • Rounded occipital contour
    • No mandibular robusticity
  5. Homo Erectus
    • East Africa
    • 1.8 mya¬†
    • 700-1200 cc
    • thickened cortical bones in the limbs
    • a long and low cranium w/ sloping frontal bone
    • thickened regions on the cranium - cranial buttressing system includes a series of thickened ridges that give distinctive appearance. Serves as a biomechanical adaptation for absorbing stress on the cranium - meat based diet

    Supraorbital torus - prominent brow ridge above the eye orbits

    Sagittal keel - raised portion along the sagittal suture

    Occiptal torus - thickened ridge of bone running horizontally across the occipital bone

    angular torus - runs horizontally along the posterior/inferior portion of the parietal

    shovel shaped incisors - lingual side ofr the tooth has ridges along the edges creating a shovel common in Chinese specimens
  6. Stone Tools

    Oldowan/Acheulean tools
    • Oldowan tool industry
    • 1st stone tools
    • composed of predominantly cores, or flakes to create a sharp edge very sharp and useful to butchering animal carcasses
    • Hammer stones were also used to crack open the bones to extract the nutrient rich marrow.

    Crude in design, but created a new niche in animal resources

    • The Acheulean tool industry
    • used by H.erectus
    • 1.4 mya
    • bifacially worked - flakes removed from two opposing sides to create a sharp edge
    • made w/ a mental template
    • not simplistic
    • tool kit is composed primarily of an hand axe, tear drop shaped tool, w/ assorted cleavers
  7. Archaic Homo sapiens
    • retain large brow ridge arching than bar like
    • occipital torus
    • long low cranium
    • larger face than H.erectus
    • tooth size similar to modern humans

    • increased brain size 1200cc
    • Best known sites: Europe & Africa
  8. Neanderthals
    • Found in Europe and Middle East
    • largest brain size of any hominid species 1500cc but retained long low cranium
    • receding forehead and supraorbital torus (double arching browridge)
    • cold adaptations
    • shorter distal limb segments (forearm/lower leg)
    • midfacial prognathism
    • occipital bun
    • retromolar space
    • very large incisors w/ extreme dental wear
  9. Anatomically Modern Humans
    • large brain size 1400cc
    • high vaulted rounded cranium
    • vertical prominent chin
    • small jaws and teeth
    • lack of crests or tori on the cranium
    • slim gracile skeleton

Card Set Information

2013-12-09 04:04:00
Hominids Bio Anthro 120 Amato

Hominids Bio Anthro 120 Amato
Show Answers:

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview