Soci 80 Chapter 15: The Environment

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  1. how do humans create environmental problems
    by trying to exploit or manage nature
  2. Environmental sociology
    considers the interactions between our physical and natural environment with our social organization and social behavior
  3. functionalist perspective
    • when examining an ecosystem, functionalists examine the entire system and its components
    • functionalists argue that environmental problems develop from the system itself
  4. 3 human-caused factors that lead to environmental damage
    • population growth 
    • average person's consumption of resources or level of affluence
    • technological damage
  5. conflict perspective argument about cause of environmental problems
  6. created by competition of power, income, and interests
  7. conflict perspective argument about capitalist system and pollution
    capitalist system encourages pollution because air and water are treated as infinite and free resouces
  8. environmental racism
    any environmental policy, practice or directive that deferentially affects or disadvantages individuals, groups, or communities based on race or color
  9. feminist perspective
    argues that a masculine world view is responsible for the domination of nature, women, and other minorities
  10. ecofeminists argue that men driven by ___(5 things)___________ are most often culprits in the exploitation of animals and the environment.
    • rationalism
    • domination
    • competitiveness 
    • individualism
    • a need to control
  11. interactionist perspective
    studies how environmental problems are created and defined or socially constructed
  12. six factors required for a successful construction of an environmental problem
    • scientific authority
    • existence of "popularisers" eg. activists, scientists
    • attention that frames the problem as novel and important
    • dramatization of the problem in symbolic or visual terms
    • visible economic incentives for taking positive action
    • emergence of an institutional sponsor
  13. climate change
    the warming of the earth's surface
  14. 3 eg. of greenhouse gases that are a problem to the environment when accumated
    • carbon dioxide
    • methane
    • nitrous oxide
  15. possible outcomes of global warming
    • decline in soil moisture for many regions
    • more frequent rainstorms
    • alteration of forests, crop yields, and water supplies
    • rising sea levels along most of the U.S. coast
  16. Particulate or particle pollution (air quality) is caused by:
    combustion of fossil fuels: burning of coal, diesel, gasoline, and wood
  17. Who is mostly affected by Smog
    • children
    • elderly
    • people who work or exercise outdoors regularly
    • people with respiratory disease
  18. problem with ground level ozone layer is also known as
  19. What is Brownfiels
    abandoned industrial or commercial properties where redevelopment is complicated by the presence of hazardous substance, pollutant or contaminant
  20. What is Child Proofing Our Communities Campaign
    a collaboration of groups concerned about children's environmental health, focuses mainly on schools
  21. what program did the US Environment Protection Agency create which cleans hazardous waste sites
    SuperFund Program
  22. what pollutes the nation's water
    • industrial contaminants 
    • untreated sewage
  23. When was the Water Pollution Control Act/ Clean Water Act established? and how has it affected our quality now in US?
    • 1972
    • improved our lakes and streams or atleast made sure there has been no significant deterioration
  24. what percentage of the world's water can be used for drinking? (1, 5, or 10)
    1 percent
  25. 66% of people get their water from ____water sources (lakes,rivers, and streams) and _____water sources (wells and underground aquifers)
    surface; ground
  26. 3 factors to water possibly running out
    • pollution
    • increasing urbanization
    • sprawling development
  27. Dams provide water for___, ____, _____, and _____.
    • irrigation
    • drinking
    • water control
    • hydroelectricity
  28. the combination of ______,___,____, and _____  are likely to cause conflict among existing and future water users.
    • limited water supplies
    • increasing population demands
    • warmer temperatures
    • the prospect of future droughts
  29. Land Conservation and Wilderness Protection
    • designated more than 106 million acres as "wilderness areas" since 1964
    • timber cutting, mechanized vehicles, mining and grazing activities are resticted
    • wilderness lands are protected for their ecological, historical, scientific and experiential resources
  30. Endangered Species Act of 1973
    • attempts to preserve fish, wildlife and plants that are of "aesthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational and scientific value to the Nation and its people"
    • **preserves interests of species over economic and human interests (safety issues)
  31. Environmental Protection Agency 
    -when was it created
    -for what purpose
    • 1970
    • provide leadership in the nation's environmental science, research, education, and assessment efforts
  32. Environmental Protection Agency five long term goals for 2006-2011
    • achieve clean air
    • ensure clean and safe water
    • preserve and restore the land
    • build healthy communities and ecosystems
    • develop a compliance and environmental stewardship
  33. what are the top 10 green US cities as of 2006
    • eugene, oregon
    • austin, texas
    • portland, oregon
    • st. paul, minnesota
    • santa rosa, california
    • oakland, california [wtf?!]
    • berkeley, california [makes more sense]
    • honolulu, hawaii
    • hutsville, alabama
    • denver, colorado
  34. what is the Sierra club and when was it created/established
    • an environmental interest group that was the first to play an important role in American politics
    • 1892
  35. name 3 of the 7 achievements of Grassroots organization
    • several environmentally hazardous facilities have been controlled by cleaning up contaminated sites, blocking the construction of new facilities, and upgrading corporate pollution control equipment
    • have forced businesses to consider the environmental consequences of their actions
    • encourage preventative approaches to environmental problems such as reducing or limiting the use of environmental contamination
    • has expanded citizen's right to participate in environmental decision making
    • organizations have served as psychological and social support networks for victims and their families
    • has brought environmental concerns and action to working-class and minority Americans
    • has influenced how the general public thinks about the environment and public health
  36. grassroots movement
    -who are the participants
    • driven by a community's politics and usually consist of working-class participants, people of color and women
    • motivating factor is the desire to protect the health and safety of families against immediate environmental threat
  37. examples of direct action of a radical environmentalist
    • picketing an office building
    • breaking the law
    • acts of civil disobedience
    • even destroying property or equipment used to build roads, kill animals, or harvest trees
  38. How are places like universities trying to take action?
    • environment safe cups, utensils, etc at restaurants on campus
    • constructing green buildings
    • purchasing alternative energy
    • investing in efforts to make campuses carbon neutral
  39. Hey YOU.
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Soci 80 Chapter 15: The Environment
2013-12-09 22:58:59
sociology final

social problems final
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