Anatomy final physiology overview.txt

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kdalbor
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251899
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Anatomy final physiology overview.txt
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2013-12-08 23:45:39
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overview
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anatomy
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  1. The ___ ear collects sound and has an emphasis on speech frequencies
    Outer
  2. The___ ear transducers sound to movement, matches impedance of air to liquid, and amplifies sound
    Middle
  3. The__ ear transduces into electrical signals and performs spectral analysis over time
    Inner
  4. Sounds from the ___ & __ are funneled into ear
    Sound from ___ is reflected away
    So sound in back have ___ intensity and brain recognizes them as being in back
    • Front and side
    • Behind head
    • Lower
  5. Shapes of pinna and EAM have ___ frequencies that are___
    Range from ___-___ Hz
    Important for _____
    • Resonant enhanced
    • 1500-8000
    • Speech sound recognition
  6. More intense ___ frequencies (around__Hz)
    Less intense___ frequencies (around__ Hz)
    • Lower 100
    • Higher 4000
  7. ___ vocal tract produces less intense sounds ( fricatives, stops, affricates)
    Voiceless=_____
    • Nearly closed
    • No energy in low frequencies
  8. Lower impedance of_____ in middle ear cavity
    Higher impedance of _____ in inner ear
    • Air
    • Liquid
  9. Impedance change causes ___
    Reflection
  10. Without the middle ear the sound in air would hit___ of inner ear
    Liquid
  11. Without the middle ear__% would reflect away like the surface of a swimming pool
    99
  12. Middle ear matches impedance by...
    Amplifying the pressure of the sound wave
  13. The middle ear mechanism is designed to increase the pressure approaching the cochlea, thereby overcoming the resistance to flow of energy, termed____
    Impedance
  14. The primary function of the middle ear is to ...
    Match the impedance of 2 conductive systems : the outer ear and the cochlea
  15. Pressure can be increase by ___ the force or ___ the area
    • Increasing
    • Decreasing
  16. The TM has an area of ___ mm2 while the area of the oval window is___mm2 making the TM ___ times larger
    • 55
    • 3.2
    • 17
  17. The___ between the TM and the oval window provides a 25 dB gain
    Area ratio
  18. The___ of the ossicles provides a 2 dB gain
    Lever advantage
  19. The__ provides a 4-6 dB gain
    Buckling effect
  20. Someone without a middle ear loses about ___ dB of hearing and receives input from___
    • 30
    • Bone conduction
  21. Bone conduction can arrive through__ or __
    • Oval window
    • Bone vibration
  22. What is spectral analysis? (3 things)
    • Intensity of each frequency in the sound
    • Transduced over time
    • Coded by basilar membrane place of maximal disturbance
  23. No matter how the traveling wave is initiated, it ALWAYS travels from __ to __ because of the gradient of the basilar membrane
    Base to apex
  24. In a todo topic arrangement high frequency sounds are resolved at the ___ and low frequency sounds are processed at the ___
    • Base
    • Apex
  25. Shearing effect
    Cilia tips move away from cell base
  26. Hair cell movement creates__
    Electrical current
  27. When the basilar membrane is displaced toward the scala vestibuli, the hair cells are activated, resulting in ___
    Electrical potentials
  28. Inside hair cell is a 150mV difference to liquid around it
    Resting potential
  29. Frequency resolution of cochlea depends upon____
    Traveling wave of basilar membrane
  30. Frequency sensitivity is about__%
    1
  31. 100 Hz tone causes fibers from __Hz to __Hz to fire
    1000 Hz tone causes fibers from __Hz to __ Hz to fire
    10,000 Hz tone causes fibers from __Hz to __Hz to fire
    • 99-101
    • 990-110
    • 9900-10,100
  32. ___ of individual neurons ___ to code higher intensity
    • Firing Rate
    • Increases
  33. Intensity can also cause ___ to fire because wider area of basilar membrane is moving
    More fibers
  34. __ refers to the quality of a neuron wherein it responds to the period of the stimulus
    Phase-locking
  35. Increase number of firings for intensity by taking turns in each cycle
    Phase-locking increases
  36. At __ intensity all neurons are firing randomly so they are spread out
    Low
  37. At ___ intensity neuron fires at the same part of different cycles to increase number of firings.
    Increases peaks, but not ____
    • High
    • Continuous
  38. Phase locking to a part of the cycle (3 things)
    • Individual fibers fire once per period
    • Individual fibers take turns on which cycles to fire with
    • Together they combine for a high rate of firing to indicate intensity
  39. The basic unit of info processing and the building block of the brain
    Neuron
  40. 2 kinds of nerve neurons
    • Low spontaneous rate (high-threshold)
    • High spontaneous rate (low-threshold)
  41. Requiring a higher level of stimulation to fire, responding to the higher end of our auditory range of signal intensity.
    Lower spontaneous rate (high-threshold)
  42. Responding to very low signal intensities (mechanism for hearing sound at near-threshold levels)
    High spontaneous rate (low-threshold)
  43. High and low spontaneous rates/ threshold are used to ___
    Code intensity

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