post midterm

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post midterm
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2013-12-09 08:25:40
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  1. Stages of Development

    what happens in the last two stages
    fertilization (fertilized egg) > blastulation (blastula) > gastrulation (gastrula) > neurulation (neurula)

    • gastrula- formation of 3 cell layers
    • neurula- attain basic outline of vertebrae body plan
  2. Little yolk
    What has it? (5)
    microlectihal

    amphioxus, placental mammals, marsupials, some fish and reptiles
  3. moderate yolk
    what has it? (2)

    incorporated/ not incorporated?
    mseolecithal

    some fish and amphibians

    yolk incorporated into process of cell division
  4. lots of yolk
    what has it? (3)

    incorporated/not incorporated?
    macrolecithal

    birds, reptiles, most fish

    yolk excluded from processes of cell division; extra-cellular +ascribed during development
  5. Fertlilization leads to?
    • Block to polyspermy (prevents other sperm from entering)
    • -if allowed can cause inviable egg
  6. Egg division?
    Fertilization

  7. How does it divide?
    • 1. animal pole
    • 2. vegetal pole (yolk is concentrated; divides more slowly; lighter in color)
    • 3. blastocoel
    • 4. blastoderm
    • 5. blastula

    divides asymmetrically
  8. What governs the early stage in development?
    When does the combined DNA start to have an effect?
    • 1.maternal genetics
    • 2. gastrulation
  9. embryo becomes 3 concentric layers
    gastrulation
  10. Name the three layers of gastrulation and what they will eventually become.
    • 1. ectoderm (outer)>epidermis, hair/feathers/nervous system + parts of skeleton
    • 2. mesoderm (middle)> skeleton +muscles + gonads, kidneys, circulatory system
    • 3. Endoderm> lining of gut, internal organs
  11. movement of cells from the surface to the interior
    involution
  12. destined to be these tissues, but not yet committed
    presumptive

  13. What is happening and what is this?
    • 1. ectoderm
    • 2. mesoderm
    • 3. endoderm
    • 4,7. ventral lip
    • 5. yolk plug
    • 6. anus
    • a. 3
    • b.2
    • c.1
    • d. 4
    • e.5
    • f.6
    • g. 7
    • h.8
    • i. 9

    • This is what these regions are destined to become if development proceeds normally
    • Fate Map
  14. Name and define the two different states of organization (gastrulation>neurulation).
    • 1. epithelium-cells forming continuous sheets
    • 2. mesenchyme> start shaped, amoeboid cells
  15. what body is a mesoderm and what are endodermal in origin?
    • 1. gonads
    • 2. first degree germ cells
  16. cells become specialized for specific functions
    differentiate
  17. chemical signals transmitted from cell to cell 

    "tells" cells how to differentiate by turning genes on and off

    How is this done?
    induction

    protein> ligands/micro rna
  18. One key function of the Spemann organizer is to:
    turn off two important signaling pathways
  19. _____ -the nucleus of an adult cell is inserted into an _____ , then develops into a new individual
    • cloning
    • ennucleated egg(egg cell that had nucleus removed)
  20. relatively undifferentiated cells that can hopefully be manipulated to become specific types of differentiated cells
    embryonic stem cells
  21. spemann organizer
    dorsal lip
    • 1. xenograft (tissue graft from another animal inserted into another)
    • 2. head
    • 3. tail
    • 1. neurectoderm 
    • 2. chordamesoderm  (notochord)
    • 3. lateral mesoderm ( will turn into somites)
    • 4. neural placodes (special senses- ears, eyes, nose)
    • 5. neural crest
    • 6. notochord
  22. What results from the neural crest?
    pigment, sensory nerves, special sensory nerves, component of skeleton, jaw, middle ear, skull

    (mesenchyme from neural ectoderm)
  23. What enduces overlying ectoderm to form neural tubes (raised lateral edges> turn in toward one another)?
    notochord
    • 1. Spinabifuda
    • 2. dorsal hollow nerve chord
    • 3. notochord (important earlier in development to lay down spine/ frame)
  24. failure of nerve tube closure
    -b/c folic acid deficiency (b-vitamin)
    spinabifuda
    • 1. epimere
    • 2. mesomere
    • 3. hypomere
    • 4. somite
    • 5. tail bud
    • 6. head
  25. What is segmented, what is not segmented, and where is the head derived from?

    Where is segmentation first evident in?
    • 1. vertebra, ribs, trunk muscles, spinal nerves, 
    • 2. limbs
    • 3. segmented anterior tip of our ancestor
    • 4. development of somites
  26. epi-
    meso-
    hypo-
    mere-
    • 1. upper
    • 2. middle
    • 3. lower
    • 4. muscle
    • 1. dermatome (outer)
    • 2. sclaratome (inner)
    • 3. myotome (core)
    • 4. mesomere
    • 5. somatic hypomere
    • 6. splanchnic hypomere
    • 7. lateral plates
  27. 1.connective tissue 
    -what does this become
    2. axial skeleton
    3. skeletal muscles
    4. What do mesomeres become?
    5. what do somatic hypomeres become?
    6. visceral musculature
    What do splanchnic hypomeres become?
    • 1. dermatome
    • -dermis
    • 2. sclaratome
    • 3. myotome
    • 4. gonads +kidneys
    • 5. parietal peritoneum + limb buds(appendicular skeleton)
    • 6. splanchnic hypomere
    • heart +circulatory system + muscles associated w/ internal organs
  28. yolk is extracellular +development begins as a flat sheet of cells on surface
    macrolecithal

  29. What is this?
    • Blastodis
    •  (First stage in fish)
    • 1. upper
    • 2. lower
    • 1. acellular mass of yolk 
    • -eventually enclosed by all 3 cell layers and gradually absorbed over course of development
    • 1. fertilized egg
    • 2. blastula
    • 3. ectoderm
    • 4. mesoderm
    • 5. endoderm
    • 6. epideris + dermal structure
    • 7. neurectoderm
    • 8. notochord
    • 9. lateral
    • 10. neural crest
    • 11. neural placode
    • 12. epimere
    • 13. mesomere
    • 14. hypomere
    • 15. skeleton sensomeres + other things
    • 16. vertebrate special senses
    • 17. somite
    • 18. gonads, kidneys
    • 19. somatic-peritoneum (limb buds)
    • 20. splanchae-"internal muslces"
    • 21. dermatome
    • 22. axial skeleton
    • 23. skeletal muscle
  30. active part that moves + interacts w/ the outside world-locomotion +good acquisition
    1 degree ectodermal + mesodermal derivatives
    skeleton + muscle

    vegetative organism=internal metabolism digestrion => 1 degree endodermal 

    who's concept and what is that concept?
    • 1.somatic 
    • 2. visceral
    • 3. Romer's concept of visceral vs. somatic
  31. Visceral                   Somatic

    skeleton              1                            2
                               3                            4
    muscle nerves       5                           6
    • 1. neural crest=gill arch + gill arch derivatives
    • 2. scleratome-axial skeleton
    • 3. jaws middle ear oscicles
    • 4. somatic hypomere-appendicular skeleton
    • 5. splachnichypomere
    • 6. myotome*-axial musculature, appendicular muscles

  32. What types of muscles are they? List their characteristics
    • 1. Smooth (splanchnic>visceral)
    • -slow, persistant contraction
    • -do not fatigue involuntarily
    • -associated with digestion, circulation, respiration
    • -regulate delivery of blood
    • -spinctor-ring of smooth muscles (governs where blood goes)
    • 2. Striated (myotome>somatic)
    • -axials+appendiculars
    • -fast, powerful contractions but fatigue
    • -voluntary
    • -multinucleate->syncytium
    • 3. Cardiac(splanchnic>visceral)
    • -uninucleate, branching
    • -branching=>network of connected cells
    • -striated
    • -powerful contractions 
    • -does not fatigue
  33. flex the vertebral column

    appendiculars=move the appendages

    what types of structures are these?
    • 1. axials (dominant in fish)
    • 2. appendiculars
    • 3. gross structure of axial muscles 
    • - somatic muscles

    -one increases at the expense of the other
    • 1. head
    • 2. tail
    • 3.axial muscles
    • 4. body cavity
    • 5. epaxial (upper)
    • 6. vertebral column 
    • 7. dark muscle
    • 8. hypaxial (lower)
    • 9. light muscle

    *hypaxial +epoxial-myomeres +segmented
  34. ____- high in ____ and  ____ and _____
    adapted for sustained aerobic activity
    ____- adapted for burst of anaerobic activity-_____

    Give example of each
    • 1. dark musclce
    • 2. myoglobin
    • 3. mitochondria
    • 4. fat
    • 5. light muscle
    • 6. glycogen

    • Turkey/chicken- dark -legs, light- breast
    • Duck-breast-dark

  35. Give examples of organism that have this type of muscle structure
    • 1. vertebral column
    • 2. dark muscle
    • 3. myosepta
    • 4. strech
    • 5. contract

    tuna, mako shark

    Left (epaxial, hypaxial) opposes right (epax, hypax)
  36. 1. Dorsal shift of ____ (+ other changes)
    2. reduction of ____
    3. diversification of _____
    • 1. vertebral column
    • 2. epaxials
    • 3. hypaxials

    -for fish, salamander, lizard
  37. Fish       Amphibian      Reptile   Mammals

    Trunk/tail _________1__________________
    amphicoelous __2__--------------------------->
    ☔☘☘                             Thoracic/lumbar     
    axisoflocom._3__------------------------------->
                   ___4____--------------------------->
                   ___5____-------------------------->
                   ___6____--------------------------->
    l------------------------------l        _____7___
    __________8___________
    __9___   _____________10_____________
                 _____________11____   ___12__
                                                 ____13___
    • 1. differentiation
    • 2. cervical/ sacral
    • 3. zygapophyses
    • 4. axis of locomotion
    • 5. axis of support
    • 6. axial +appendicular drive
    • 7.  epaxial opposes hypaxial muscles
    • 8. left axials oppose right axials (sprawling gait)
    • 9. epaxials=are dorsal to transverse processes of vertebrae reduced to a columns of musculature
    • 10. epaxials contribute to mobility of head-support of the vertebral column + > dorsoflexion
    • 11. hypaxials-support of internal organs, respiration
    • -flank steak, skirt stake, bacon
    • 12. Diaphram
    • 13. head mobility=> splenius-head depressor muscles; suspension of pectoral girdle
  38. hypobranchial elements of the first four trunk vertebrae

    bulk of pharyngeal pump & now associated w/ all visceral arch derivatives, facial muscles, some throat muscle, + some elements of the pectoral girdle
    • hypobranchial muscles
    • -muscular tongue

    brachials
    • 1. 7 somitomeres
    • -derived from 4 pre-otic somites
    • -3 pairs of hypaxials + epaxials + remnant of 4th segment
    • 2. 4 post otic somites

    • Total=8 segmentation
    • -skull not segmented, newly added to body plan

    Interpretation-segmentation ran along full length of primitive vertebrates
  39. 1.extrinsic eye muslces
    2. branchiomeric musculature (gills)
    3. muslces associated w/ first gill arch
       -3 paris ____ + ____  (malleus, incus)
    4.derivatives of 2nd- ___ + ____ + _____
    5. 7+4 post otics = ____= ____
    • 1.Somitomeres 1-3, 5
    • 2.4,6,7 + postotic 1-4
    • 3. 4
    • 4. 6
    • 5. arches, 7
  40. ____= respiration + ____ > _____ -suspension of pectoral girdle
    • 1. fish
    • 2. tetrapodds
    • 3. trapezeus

  41. 1.In the origin of the head, what new stuff was added?
    2. Where does the head appear on (top and bottom)?
    3. What is this image of?
    4. Which image is correct?
    • 1. neural crest + neurla placodes
    • 2. (top) on anterior tip
    •     (bottom) laminated over anterior end of           vertebrate ancestor
    • 3. vertebrate common ancestor
    • 4. bottom
  42. derived from condensed mesenchyme from myotomes
    initially subdivided into dorsal + ventral bundles
    • appendicular muscles
  43. development reveals and provides what?
    How does it proceed?
    • 1. common ancestry
    • 2. mechanism for evolution
    • 3. from general to specific
    •    - early we see shared derived trains of chordates +vertebrates-Darwin 1859
  44. 1879
    ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
    "phylotype"-tailbud stage
    Haeckel
  45. 1997
    40 species of vertebrates representing all clades to the level of subclasses
    Richard setal
  46. What is left of Darwin's original proposals?
    • Everything
    • -we see remarkable similarities across developement for all vertebrates
  47. _____=>_____ nerve cord +anterior to posterior axis
    -successive _____
    1.
    2.
    • Neurulation
    • dorsohollow
    • inductions
    • 1. dorsal lip inducing mesoderm to differentiate into notochord
    • 2. notochord inducing neurectoderm to become dorsal, hollow nerve chord
  48. comparative development of limbs- _____ early
    pentadactylus
  49. Why are embryonic vertebrates so similar?
    • 1. embryos are protected in eggs or inside their mothers
    • 2. early development is constrained +variation is likely to be deleterious
    • -there are other developmental features suggest evolution transitions
  50. Why does development so often seem to trace evolution?

    give an example
    • Evolution often involves recycling old parts for new functions 
    • "nature is prodigal of diversity but stingy in innovation"-Von Baer

    • ie. gill arches + their derivatives
    • -neural crest visceral skeleton
    • lamprey
    • respiration-jaw fish     tetrapods
    •               -jaws          sound transmission
    •               -respiration  jaws
    • filter feeling
  51. evolutionary transformation of vertebrae, limb
    plantigrade->digits-> unguligrade
  52. change in the rate of development of one part of the body relative to others

    examples
    heterochrony

    • forelimb of oppossum=accelerated as an adaptation to mursupial reproduction
    • chondrichthys-cartilagenous fishes
    • primitive state in the evolution of bone
    • alternative-derived state
    • endochondral bone>cartilage precursor replaced by bone
    • 1. fertilized egg
    • 2. juvenille
    • 3. metamorphosis
    • 4. gonad maturation
    • 5. adult
    • 6. gonads
    • 7. metamorphosis is deleted
    • 7.1 neotony
  53. 1.ancestral species-> descendant species
                                adult is a mixture of                                 embryonic +adult features                             of ancestor
    2.retention of embryonic/juvenille characters into adulthood
    3. acceleration of adult trait so that its expressed earilier
    4. neotonic + retain larval train of a tunicate ancestor
    5. _____=_____ or adults that are morphologically similar to larvae
    • 1. paedomorphosis
    • 2. neotony
    • 3. progenesis
    • 4. larvae vertebrates
    • 5. salamanders, neotony
  54. similarity of human and chimps ____
    -composed of _____
    largely in ____ which are the product of relative rates of growth
    evolution of adult body form is attained via __________
    • ~99%
    • all the same parts
    • dimension
    • changes in development
  55. Why do they have the form they do?
    Examples
    • Their life style
    • 1. fusiform body of fish/birds
    • 2. unguligrade leg of horses/ artiodactyls/ litzpterna
  56. How do they get the form that they do?
    • Evolution by natural selection
    • -modification of development
  57. List the 4 arguments for evolution
    • 1. paleontological record
    • -fossils sometimes revealed shared ancestry amoung living vertebrates
    • -timing of events
    • 2. comparative anatomy
    • +limb homologies
    • 3. comparative embryology
    • 4. molecular
    • experimental work

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