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Regarding anesthesia and analgesia according to the AWA
- Procedures involving animals will avoid or minimize discomfort, distress and pain
- Painful procedures will be performed with appropriate sedatives, analgesic or anesthetics
NIH guideline to anesthesia and analgesia
An integral component of veterinary medical care is the prevention or alleviation of pain associated with procedural and surgical procedures
A reversible state characterized by the loss of sensation or feeling
loss of feeling or sensation in one part of the body
a state of unconsciousness with absence of pain sensation over the entire body
loss of sensation in an anatomical area supplied by a particular nerve (epidural)
This is referred to as the decreased perception of pain without the loss of consciousness
This is the state of calmness without the loss of consciousness
This is the localized sensation of discomfort resulting from the stimulation of specialized nerve endings
Criteria for anesthetic method selection: (SAWTHOP)
- Type of procedure to be done
- Objectives of the research protocol
- Previous drug administration
3 steps to pre-operative care
- Acclimate animal (5-7 days)
- Physical exam (tpr), bloodwork
- Fasting dependent upon species
2 parasympatholytic agents in pre-anethesia
Atropine (except in rabbit) and glycopyrrolate
parasympatholytic functions for pre-anesthesia
reduce secretions and intestinal motility
When should pre-anesthetic parasympatholytic agents be given?
30-45 minutes prior to anethesia
3 tranqulizers/sedatives used in pre-anethesia
- Acepromazine maleate
Purpose of tranquilizers/sedative in pre-anesthesia
- minimize stress of being restrained
- reduces the amount of general anesthetic agent needed
2 inhalation methods
- open drop method
- calibrated vaporizer
topical local/regional agents
injectable local/regional agents
- bupivicaine (marcaine)
What is the difference between local and regional anesthesia?
- local is infiltration of the agent at the site
- regional is infiltration of the agent around the nerve or spinal cord segment supplying the area
Injectable General Anesthetic agents
- Ketamine - dissociative used with other agents
- Pentobarbital - barbiturate that depresses the CNS
Inhalant Anesthetic agents
- Isofluorane - quick induction/recovery, poor analgesia and muscle relaxation
- Nitrous oxide - gas at room temp, not capable of anesthesia by itself, good analgesia and muscle relation
- jaw tone (except rabbits)
- heart rate
Monitoring Anesthesia: Heart
- rate and rhythm
- support with adequate fluids and correct anesthetic dose
Monitoring Anesthesia: Respiration
- rate and depth
- Ensure proper positioning
- Periodic or continuous assisted ventilation (longer procedures)
Monitoring Anesthesia: Body Temperature
- rectally or esophageal
- Support with external heat, warm fluids and coverings to minimize heat loss
Monitoring Anesthesia: Fluid status
- Fluid loss monitored by MM/CRT
- Support loss by replacing - 3x volume lost: hetastarch, whole blood, plasma
Facial Grimace: Rodents
- Eyes squinted
- Ears rotated outward
- Cheek muscles contracted
- Whiskers on end
Acute signs of pain:
- Increase heart rate
- abnormal respiration
- muscle tensing (splinting)
- facial grimace
Chronic signs of pain
- any of the acute signs plus:
- reluctance to be handled
- not eating/drinking - weight loss
- glazed eyes
- grating of teeth
What are the agents of choice for post-operative pain?
Agents used to control pain due to disease state or mild procedures:
Drugs that minimize pain locally/regionally
lidocaine and bupivicaine
Transdermal drug that minimizes pain systemically:
Injectable drugs that minimize pain systemically:
butorphanol, buprenorphine, morphine, meloxicam, carprofen, ketoprofin
Oral drugs that minimize pain systemically:
aspirin, ibuprofen, carprofen, meloxicam
Non-drug methods that minimize pain:
- Acclimating (to cage before surgery)
- Warm environment
This is the physical environment of the secondary enclosure (room, bar, outdoor habitat)
This is the immediate physical environment surrounding the animal (cage, pen, stall)
This type of facility is where the animal housing and use is not the sole use of space or is physically separated from support areas. (favorite of researchers)
This type of facility is where the support, care and use areas are adjacent to the animal housing.
What are the advantages of a centralized facility?
- efficient flow
- less duplication
- less transport
- greater biosecurity and security
Why is recycled air not recommended by the "Guide"?
There is a potential to spread aerosolized contagions
What is the humidity recommendation of the "Guide"?
What is the air exchange rate recommended by the "Guide"?
10-15/hour in the animal rooms
these types of cages have force filtered air which decreases ammonia build up
These types of cages are usually filtered but have no forced air
What does HVAC stand for?
Heat Ventilation Air Conditioning
What does GFCI stand for and where is it used?
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter and it is used in aquatic holding facilities
Requirements for Aquatic holding facilities:
- All surfaces impervious to water
- Slip-resistant floors
- Material should be moisture and corrosion resistant and non-toxic
This refers to a surgery that penetrates or exposes a body cavity or produces substantial impairment of physical or physiologic function
This refers to a surgery that does not expose a body cavity and cause little or no physical impairment.
This refers to a surgery that the animal is expected to recover.
This refers to a surgery where the animal is euthanized once the procedure is performed.
What are the main differences between rodent and non-rodent surgical guidelines?
- Non-rodent surgery requires the use of a gown/mask/cap/shoe covers
- Non-rodent surgery must be set aside in a separate facility with no other activity
What are the important advantages of a centralized vs. a non-centralized large animal surgical facility?
- Cost saving on equipment
- Conservation of space, personnel and resources
- Enhanced professional oversight
Large animal facility must haves:
- Construction in materials impervious to moisture and easily sanitized
- Scavenging System
- Centralized storage and supplies
- Autoclave and scrub sinks located near OR
- OR and pre-op adjacent to OR
- Post-Op recovery area
Surgery: Veterinarian Role
- member of IACUC
- indepth knowledge of research protocols
- work closely with researcher re: protocols/refinement
- provide support to the veterinary technician
Surgery: Veterinary Technician Role:
- provide anesthesia - support and monitoring
- provide non-sterile surgery support
- compliance monitoring
- surgical facility maintenance
Veterinary Technician Clinical Role:
- Post-operative management
- Health rounds, patient records management and treatments
- Sample collection and subsequent labwork
- Manage preventative health programs
Surgery: Research Staff Role:
- Research related manipulations
- Collection of research data
- progress reports (necessary for protocol renewal)
Husbandry staff role:
- Provides food,water, clean cage environments
- First line of defense for animal welfare - most familiar with the animals in their care
- Have a more frequent presence in the facility
Three general forms of record keeping:
- Anesthetic records
- Controlled drug logs
- Quality control logs
How often are vaporizers certified?
How are autoclaves and sterilizers maintained?
Quality control through ampules on quarterly basis
Compliance monitoring ensures that:
- sterile techniques are followed
- proper training of employess
- manipulations are performed to approved protocols
- quality control measures are followed
Amyloidosis is associated with which infrequently used research animal?
White peking ducks
Atherosclerosis is associated with which infrequently used research animal(s)
- Homing and Racer pigeons - some breeds are susceptible and others are resistant
- Japanese quail
- Collared Lemming
Slender louse of pigeons
Turkeys are occasionally used in what types of research
- cardiomyopathy with endocardial febroelastosis
- Hereditary muscular dystrophy
The White leghorn chicken is occasionally used in what types of research?
- Hereditary Muscular Dystrophy
- Hashimoto thyroiditis
- Delayed neurotoxicity
Which animal has scent glands ventral to each eye?
Blue Duikker (miniature S. African antelope)
Which animal has naturally occurring sickle-shaped RBCs?
Which animal is used in vertical transmission of rabies and canine distemper research?
Which animal has non-retractable claws and is an induced ovulator?
New World Mink
What research is the New World Mink used for?
Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
Which animal is used for research on Lepromatous leprosy?
nine banded armadillo
What is special about the nine banded armadillo's offspring?
Regular production of 4-8 monozygotic offspring (identical)
Which animal has footpads that can be formed into vacuum cups for climbing?
What is the Rock Hyraz used for in research?
- reproductive physiology, endocrinology (abdominal testes)
- naturally occurring gastric ulcers
Which animal was banned by the USDA due to it harboring avian and bovine tuberculosis?
Brush Tail Possum
In which animal is muscular dystrophy reversible by vitamin supplementation?
Short Tailed Wallaby
Which animal is used in carcinogenesis in embryonic mammalian systems research
Why is it important not to dislodge mouse opossum from the circular mammar?
Since they have no pouch, the young cling to a circle of teat on the abdomen. If dislodge they cannot reattach and will die
What is the only north american marsupial?
Opossom (Didelphis virginana)
How many teeth does an opossum have?
52 the most of any animal
Why is the opossum used in immunological studies?
born without any lymphocytes
What 3 etiologies are opossums naturally resistant to:
rabies, snake venom, mycobacterium sp.
What etiologies are opossum naturally affected with?
Leptospira spp, Borreila recurrentis Streptococcus viridians adn pyogenes, salmonellosis and tularemia
Why is the opossum used in esophageal burn research?
musculature resembles humans
What animal requires sand baths
Which family has 5 genera that all are nocturnal and have external fur-lined cheek pouches
Which animal is used in research of hibernation and hepatomas induced by viral hepatitis?
Wood Chuck/Ground Hog/Marmot
Which animal is used in research of gallstones associated with high cholesterol diets?
What social hierarchy do prairie dogs live in?
Which animal is used in research of Leshmaniasis and has separate thymus glands in cervical and mediastinal areas?
Degu (Octodon degu) Trumpet-tailed Rat
What animal does not have a vaginal closure membrane?
Why is the chinchilla used in hearing research?
They do not experience aging deafness
What is the only mammal that live eusocially?
naked mole rat
What is a eusocial colony?
1 dominant queen and 1- 2 breeding males with 100-300 closely related sterile underlings
What happens when the dominant female naked mole rat is removed?
The succeeding female's testosterone increases sharply.
What does the naked mole rat use for digging?
What is the only muridae that can eat solid food at birth
Egyptian Spiny mouse
What animal is used in Rift Valley Fever research?
Niles Grass Rat
What animal is the only animal model for antral adenocarcinoma research?
Which infrequently used research animals form monogamous pairs?
- Multimammuate mouse
- Grasshopper mouse
- Deer mouse
Which is the newest animal used as a model for Hantaan Virus?
Striped Field Mouse
Which 2 animals are susceptible to ringtail?
- African White-tailed Rat
- Cotton Rat
Which animals diving reflex is not inhibited by anesthesia?
What animal's shrill alarm sounds like a "mini wolf"
What animal is used in periodontitis research due to its immediate response to a high sucrose diet by forming dental caries?
What research is the Deer mouse used in?
- Hantaan virus - natural reservoir
- Trypansomiasis in humans
- Mouse Hepatitis - resistant
What is NIDR?
Naval Institute of Dental Research
What research is the African White-tailed rat used in?
spontaneous diabetes mellitus without obesity
What animal is the natural host for Brucella neotomae?
Which animal has an ear valve that regulates the size of the opening?
Which act governs Infrequent Lab animals and why?
They are governed by the Animal Welfare Act because they are considered "wild" animals.
Which animal is naturally free from most common latent murine diseases?
What area of research is the Vesper mouse used?
Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever - Machupovirus
Which animal is the only seasonally color changing rodent?
What is the steppe lemming used for?
control in pox studies - naturally resistant to ectromelia
What disease is the Collared Lemming highly susceptible to?
- 1)social animals
- 2)dig burrows
- 3)make nest lined with fur
- 4)altricial young
- 5)susceptible to myxomatosis
- 1) usually solitary
- 2)do not dig burrows
- 3) rest in depressions called a form
- 4) precocious young
- 5) generally larger than rabbits
- 6) not susceptible to myxomatosis
What is myxomatosis characterized by?
Horn like growths
4 advantages of rabbits use in research
- 1) good antibody producers
- 2) large body of research already done on rabbits
- 3) large enough for some major surgical procedures
- 4) some genetically unique strains available
4 disadvantages of rabbit use in research
- 1) variable response to anethesia
- 2) more prone to cardiovascular failure
- 3) prone to stress disease like coccidiosis
- 4) susceptible to Pasteurella which reduces gaseous exchange
What parasympatholytic agent are rabbits resistant to?
Rabbit life span
Rabbit commercial life span
Laboratory rabbit life span
few days to several years
Rabbit disposition and behavior
- 1) alert and docile - adapt well to cages
- 2) frightened animals kick, scream, jump
- 3) occasionally get attack rabbits
- 4) play with toys, water bottle, feeders, lickers
- 5) males spray urine and will fight with other males
What type of incisors to rabbits have?
Rabbit Dental formula:
I2/1, C0/0, P3/2, m3/3
99.1 - 103 F
Rabbit Heart rate
250 - 300 bpm (@180bpm under anesthesia)
- 1) herbivorous
- 2) extensive cecum to accommodate fermentative digestion
crepuscular - active at dust and dawn
- hard, dark round balls
- coprophagy of special pellets produced at dawn: softer/mucus covered - ingested to reinoculate gut with beneficial bacteria
Rabbit estrus length
2-4 week period - red vulva
Rabbit Estrous cycle
- polyestrous - at any given time a follicle can develop
- Ovulation is induced
Rabbit act of parturition
- prior to kindling doe will build nest and line by pulling her fur
- can be split up to 3 days apart (a function related to hiding from predators)
Difference in appearance of male and female
- Females - dulap
- Males - head is big relative to body
- normally creamy yellow - due to calcium crystals
- pH = 8.2
- moderate proteinuria is normal
Estrus doe behavior
hops around and rubs chin on cage
- 1) take doe to buck's cage
- 2) copulation is very quick @ 30 sec
- 3) buck will scream and fall backward when done
30-32 days (45 days in hares)
When do you palpate for pregnancy in a rabbit?
10-14 days after breeding
Baby rabbits are called:
Baby hares are called: