Regarding the diaphragm, The greater and lesser splanchnic veins pierce the crura at the level of
Regarding the diaphragm, The left dome reaches the
-5th rib in expiration.
Regarding the diaphragm, The sympathetic chain passes behind the
-medial arcuate ligament lying on psoas major.
Diaphragm, The azygous vein is transmitted through the diaphragm at the level of
The oesophagus length is
The oesophagus: Passes behind the
-left main bronchus in the thorax.
The oesophagus:Is lined with
- The upper 2/3 of the oesophagus is lined by stratified squamous epithelium
- lower 1/3 is lined with columnar epithelium.
The blood supply of the oesophagus is as follows:
• In the neck: inferior thyroid arteries
• In the thorax: branches of the aorta
• In the abdomen: left gastric artery and inferior phrenic artery
The oesophagus extends from the level of the
- lower border of the criocoid cartilage to the cardiac orifice of the stomach.
The venous drainage of the oesophagus is into the
-inferior thyroid, azygos and left gastric veins. There is a communication between the azygos and left gastric veins which is an important porto-systemic anastomosis that can be the site of oesophageal varices.
The patella assists with
-knee extension by displacing the quadriceps tendon anteriorly and thereby increasing the leverage that the patellar tendon can exert on the femur.
Ossification of the patellar occurs between
-3 and 6 years of age.
Vastus intermedialis attaches to the
-base of the patella. Vastus lateralis and vastus medialis attach to its lateral and medial borders respectively.
The tail of the pancreas lies at the
-splenic hilum and runs in the lienorenal ligament.
-The body and neck of the pancreas drain into the splenic vein.
-The head of the pancreas drains into the superior mesenteric and hepatic portal veins.
Anatomy of the calf: Gastrocnemius is innervated by the
-tibial nerve and specifically nerve roots S1 and S2.
There is frequently a sesamoid bone gastrocnemius called the
-fabella lying in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle. It is present in 10-30% of the population and can be mistaken for a loose body or an osteophyte.
Plantaris assists gastrocnemius in
-plantar-flexion of the ankle and flexion of the knee.
Anatomy of the calf: The sural arteries are two large branches arising from the
-popliteal artery that supply gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris.
Regarding volar plate injuries of the finger
forced hyper-extension injuries
volar plate injuries of the finger -Sequelae
Swan neck deformity.
Regarding X-rays of the wrist
distal radial articular surface tilts 17 degrees towards the ulna
lateral X-ray -> capitate articulating with the concave surface of the lunate
distal end of the radius is angled 15 degrees ANTERIORLY.
The width of the intercarpal joints is uniform and approximately
The posterior relations of the ascending colon include:
• Quadratus lumborum
• Perirenal fascia and lateral kidney
Regarding Gamekeeper's thumb:It is caused by
forced abduction or hyperextension of the proximal phalanx of the thumb which results in a valgus force to the MCP joint.
instability of the MCP joint and weakness of pinch grasp.
tear of the ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb
Gamekeeper's thumb It can be associated with an
avulsion fracture -> proximal portion (at the ulnar base) of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.
Regarding the celiac trunk:arises from the aorta at the level of
The coeliac trunk has 3 main divisions:
• Left gastric artery, which branches into:
• - Oesophageal branch
• - Hepatic branch
• Common hepatic artery, which branches into:
• - Proper hepatic artery
• - Right gastric artery
• - Gastroduodenal artery
• - Cystic artery
• Splenic artery, which branches into:
• - Dorsal pancreatic artery
• - Short gastric arteries
• - Left gastro-omental artery
• - Greater pancreatic artery
The boundaries of the anterior triangle of the neck are:
• Superiorly (base): inferior border of the mandible
• Inferiorly (apex): jugular notch of the manubrium sterni
• Anteriorly: midline of the neck from the chin to the jugular notch
• Posteriorly: anterior margin of sternocleidomastoid
The contents of the anterior triangle of the neck include: