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The posterior abdominal wall are by bones and muscles list them:
- –Bones -lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, wings of the ilium and ribs
- –Muscles -diaphragm, iliacus, psoas major, quadratus lumborum
What is the pelvic girdle made up of?
the sacrum and two os coxae or hip bones
How many bones are fused to form the os coxae? Where does this fusion occur? How do they articulate with each other?
- fusion occurs at the acetabulum;
- each os coxa articulates with the other at the pubic symphyis anterirly, sacrum posteriorly, and the fumer inferiorly
List 3 elements of the os coaxae
List 4 muscles of the abdominal wall
- Psoas major
- Psoas minor
- Quadratus Lumborum
Posas Major OINA
- –0 -transverse processes, bodies and intervertebral discs of T12-L5
- –I -lesser trochanter with iliacus
- –N -ventral primary rami of L2-L4
- –A -flexion of the thigh, lateral flexion of the trunk and flexion of the trunk
Psoas minor OINA
- –0 -bodies of vertebrae T12 and L 1 and the disc in-between
- –I-pubic bone
- –N -ventral primary ramus L 1
- –A -flexion of the pelvis and vertebral column
- –0 -iliac fossa
- –I -lesser trochanter with psoas major
- –N -femoral nerve
- –A -flexion of the thigh
Quadratus Lumborum OINA
- –0 -iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament, and transverse processes of lower Lumbar vertebrae
- –I -rib 12, transverse process of upper Lumbar vertebrae
- –N -subcostal and upper lumbar ventral primary rami
- –A -flexion of the trunk laterally, extend vertebral column, elevate the hip, stabilize 12 rib against inspiration
What is the lumbar plexus derived from?
L1,2,3 and part of 4
what is the sacral plexus derived from?
List the nerves of the lumbar plexus
- •Iliohypogastric -L 1
- •Ilioinguinal -L 1
- •Genitofemoral -L 1, L2
- •Lateral femoral cutaneous -L2, L3
- •Femoral -L2, L3, L4
- •Obturator -L2, L3, L4
lateral femoral cutaneous n?
What does the lumbosacral trunk consist of?
what does it join?
- Part of the ventral primary ramus of L4 and VPR of L5;
- It joins S1-4 to form the sacral plexus
List the sacral plexus nerves (7)
- •Superior gluteal-L4, L5, S1
- •Inferior gluteal-L5, S1, S2
- •Sciatic -L4, L5, S1, S2, S3
- •Pudendal-S2, S3, S4
- •Twigs to the piriformis -S1, S2, S3, S4
- •Nerve to the obturator internus -L5, S1, S2
- •Nerve to the quadratus femoris -L4, L5, S1
When does the thoracic aorta become the abdominal aorta?
when it travels through the diaphragm and into the abdominal cavity
The abdominal aorta divides into right and lect common iliac arteries, where?
At the level of L4 vertaebra
What do the common iliac arteries divide into?
internal and external iliac arteries
What does the internal iliac artery supply?
the viscera of the pelvic cavity
descirbe the pathway of the external iliac a.
it passes under the inguinal ligament and enters the anterior compartment of the thigh. It becomes the femoral artery when crossing under the inguinal ligament.
Describe the inferior epigastric artery pathway; What does it supply?
- The inferior epigastric artery arises rom the external iliac artery before it enters the anterior thigh compartment;
- It supplies the inferior aspect of the anterior abdominal wall.
What is the largest vein in the body?
Where does it return blood from?
Where does it arise?
What does it ascend through?
- Inferior vena cava;
- both lower extremities, anterior abdominal wall and abdominopelvic viscera;
- the level of the L5 vertabrae from a union of the common iliac veins;
- through vena cava foramen in the diaphram and continues to the heart
Describe the diaphram (2). What is it composed of?
- musculotendinous partrition separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities;
- Major muscle of respiration
- Composed of Central tendon (shape of boomerang) and Peripheral Muscular Portions(3)
- sternal, costal and lumbar.
List the 3 peripheral muscular portions of the diaphragm and describe them.
- •Sternal portion -fibers arising from the xiphoid and inserting into the central tendon
- •Costal portion -arises from the internal surface of the lower six ribs and costal cartilage and lateral and medial arcuate ligaments
- •Lumbar portion -arises from the lumbar vertebra in the form of a right crus and left crus. The right crus arise from LV 1-3 and their intervertebral discs. The left crus arise from the LV 1,2 and their intervertebral discs
List the four openings in the diagphram and describe them;
What passes posterior the the medial arucate ligament?
- Sternocostal hiatus -passage of the superior epigastric vessels and some lymphatics
- •Foramen for the inferior vena cava -passage for the inferior vena cava and right phrenic nerve
- •Esophageal hiatus -passage for the esophagus and vagal trunks
- •Aortic hiatus -passage for the aorta and thoracic ducts
- -Sympathetic trunk passes posterior to the medial arcuate ligament