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What is a Synapse? What happens there?
A specialized communication site between two cells. Synaptic knob releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft of another cell.
What are the four anatomical classes of neurons?
*(Receptors)Relay sensation to sensory neurons
*(Proprioceptors) Monitor body position
*(Exteroceptors)Monitor sensations from the external enviornment
Cells that are between sensory and motor neurons
Also responsible for higher functions
control skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, glands, and adipose tissues.
What do somatic motor neurons control?
What do Visceral motor neurons control?
- smooth muscle
- cardiac muscle
- adipose tissue
What are the four types of glial cells?
- Ependymal Cells
Cells that support and protect neurons and are half the volume of the nervous system
*Cells that form the epithelial lining fluid-filled passageway in the brain and spinal cord
*Assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring cerebral spinal fluid
What is the name for the mobile phagocytic cells that remove waste and pathogens from the nervous system
Which cells maintain the blood-brain barrier, provide structural support for the brain, and absorb and recycle neurotransmitters?
(form scar tissue after CNS injury)
Which cells provide structural framework for the central nervous system, and myelinates those cells
Brain tissue that is not myelinated.
Brain Tissue that is myelinated.
The process where a schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system or ogliodendrocytes in the central nervous system wrap themselves around the axon of a neuron.
What two types of Glial Cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
- Schwann Cells
- Satellite Cells
These cells wrap themselves around peripheral neurons
These cells surround cell bodies in the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system and regulate the intracellular environment.
What happens to damaged cells in the CNS?
Astrocytes create scar tissue. Normal function is not resumed
What happens when peripheral nerves are damaged.
Schwann cells regenerate, and partial function can possibly resume.
What is resting potential? how is it created and maintained?
70mV, the transmembrane potential of an undisturbed cell. It is created by regulating the number of sodium and potassium ions entering and leaving a cell.
What are the three types of gated channels and how do they each operate?
- Chemically Gated Channels
- Voltage-Gated Channels
- Mechanically-Gated Channels
These channels operate by opening in the presence of a specific neurotransmitter
These gated channels operate by opening and closing according to a specific transmembrane potentials.
these channels open in the pressence of pressure, and close in it's absence
localized changes in the transmembrane potential
This happens when a stimulus causes the sodium gated channels to open allowing sodium to flood in.
This occurs when the stimulus is removed from a cell after depolarization as the potential moves back to resting levels.
This happens after repolarization, as potassium channels open to move the potential back up to resting levels
What events are involved in the generation of an activation potential?
A graded depolarization brings an area of excitable membrane to threshold (-60mV).
Voltage-gated sodium channels open and sodium ions move into the cell. The transmembrane potential rises to +30mV
Sodium channels close, voltage-gated potassium channels open, and potassium ions move out of the cell. Repolarization begins.
Potassium channels close, and both sodium and potassium channels return to their normal states.
Occurs on an unmyelinated axon. Is slower
Occurs on Myelinated Axons, way faster
Excitatory Postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
A graded depolarization of the transmembrane potential. Occurs as a result of a neurotransmitter, it raises it closer to threshold so a smaller causing a smaller push needed to get to threshold.
when an Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential has occured, so less stimulus is required to reach threshold.
Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (ISPS)
This happens when the potassium channels are opened causing hyperpolarization. This inhibits the neuron because a very large depolarizing stimulus is required to reach threshold
How many spinal cord nerves are typically found in the human spine?
How are the spinal cord nerves numbered?
- C1 - C8 Cervical
- T1 - T12 Thoracicy
- L1 - L5 Lumbar
- S1 - S5 Sacral
Where does the spinal cord end?
at the first or second lumbar vertabrae
What is the difference between the white and gray matter in the spinal cord?
- White matter myelinated axons
- Gray matter cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
middle meninges layer
arachnoid mater (subarachnoid space)
innermost layer of the meninges?
what space is the CSF located?
Where is the epidural space?
between the dura mater and vertebral canal
what is a dermatome?
an area of skin that is innervated by one spinal nerve
What is a plexus?
a complex interwoven network of nerves
what are the major nerve plexuses?
- Cervical Plexus
- Brachial Plexus
- Lumbar Plexus
- Sacral Plexus
What is a reflex arc?
a neural pathway that controls an action reflex
what are the components of a reflex arc
- sensory nerve
- sensory neuron
- motor neuron
- peripheral effector
what is the stretch reflex?
- monosynaptic reflex
- provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length
- patellar reflex is one
What is the withdrawal reflex?
move affected body parts away from stimulus
what purpose does reflex testing serve?
they indicate whether or not there is damage to higher centers or descending tracts in adults
What are the major regions of the Brain
- Brain Stem