Final Exam

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Final Exam
2013-12-09 19:36:51
Bio 141 Gay Porn

Bio 141 Final Exam
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  1. What is a Synapse? What happens there?
    A specialized communication site between two cells. Synaptic knob releases neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft of another cell.
  2. What are the four anatomical classes of neurons?
    • Anaxonic
    • Bipolar
    • Unipolar
    • Multipolar
  3. Anaxonic Neuron
  4. Bipolar Neuron
  5. Unipolar Neuron
  6. Multipolar Neuron
  7. *(Receptors)Relay sensation to sensory neurons
    *(Proprioceptors) Monitor body position
    *(Exteroceptors)Monitor sensations from the external enviornment
    Sensory Neurons
  8. Cells that are between sensory and motor neurons
    Also responsible for higher functions
  9. control skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, glands, and adipose tissues.
    Motor Neurons
  10. What do somatic motor neurons control?
    Skeletal Muscles
  11. What do Visceral motor neurons control?
    • smooth muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • glands
    • adipose tissue
  12. What are the four types of glial cells?
    • Neuroglia
    • Ependymal Cells
    • Microglia
    • Astrocytes
    • Ogliodendrocytes
  13. Cells that support and protect neurons and are half the volume of the nervous system
  14. *Cells that form the epithelial lining fluid-filled passageway in the brain and spinal cord
    *Assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring cerebral spinal fluid
    Ependymal cells
  15. What is the name for the mobile phagocytic cells that remove waste and pathogens from the nervous system
  16. Which cells maintain the blood-brain barrier, provide structural support for the brain, and absorb and recycle neurotransmitters?
    (form scar tissue after CNS injury)
  17. Which cells provide structural framework for the central nervous system, and myelinates those cells
  18. Brain tissue that is not myelinated.
    Gray Matter
  19. Brain Tissue that is myelinated.
    White Matter
  20. The process where a schwann cell in the peripheral nervous system or ogliodendrocytes in the central nervous system wrap themselves around the axon of a neuron.
  21. What two types of Glial Cells are found in the peripheral nervous system?
    • Schwann Cells
    • Satellite Cells
  22. These cells wrap themselves around peripheral neurons
    Schwann Cells
  23. These cells surround cell bodies in the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system and regulate the intracellular environment.
    Satellite Cells
  24. What happens to damaged cells in the CNS?
    Astrocytes create scar tissue. Normal function is not resumed
  25. What happens when peripheral nerves are damaged.
    Schwann cells regenerate, and partial function can possibly resume.
  26. What is resting potential? how is it created and maintained?
    70mV, the transmembrane potential of an undisturbed cell. It is created by regulating the number of sodium and potassium ions entering and leaving a cell.
  27. What are the three types of gated channels and how do they each operate?
    • Chemically Gated Channels
    • Voltage-Gated Channels
    • Mechanically-Gated Channels
  28. These channels operate by opening in the presence of a specific neurotransmitter
    Chemically-Gated Channels
  29. These gated channels operate by opening and closing according to a specific transmembrane potentials.
    Voltage-Gated Channels
  30. these channels open in the pressence of pressure, and close in it's absence
    Mechanically-Gated Channels
  31. localized changes in the transmembrane potential
    Graded Potential
  32. This happens when a stimulus causes the sodium gated channels to open allowing sodium to flood in.
  33. This occurs when the stimulus is removed from a cell after depolarization as the potential moves back to resting levels.
  34. This happens after repolarization, as potassium channels open to move the potential back up to resting levels
  35. What events are involved in the generation of an activation potential?
    A graded depolarization brings an area of excitable membrane to threshold (-60mV).

    Voltage-gated sodium channels open and sodium ions move into the cell. The transmembrane potential rises to +30mV

    Sodium channels close, voltage-gated potassium channels open, and potassium ions move out of the cell. Repolarization begins.

    Potassium channels close, and both sodium and potassium channels return to their normal states.
  36. Continuous Propegation
    Occurs on an unmyelinated axon. Is slower
  37. Saltatory Propegation
    Occurs on Myelinated Axons, way faster
  38. Tetanus
  39. Incomplete Tetanus
  40. Twitch Contractions
  41. Excitatory Postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    A graded depolarization of the transmembrane potential. Occurs as a result of a neurotransmitter, it raises it closer to threshold so a smaller causing a smaller push needed to get to threshold.
  42. Facilitation
    when an Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential has occured, so less stimulus is required to reach threshold.
  43. Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential (ISPS)
    This happens when the potassium channels are opened causing hyperpolarization. This inhibits the neuron because a very large depolarizing stimulus is required to reach threshold
  44. How many spinal cord nerves are typically found in the human spine?
  45. How are the spinal cord nerves numbered?
    • C1 - C8  Cervical
    • T1 - T12 Thoracicy
    • L1 - L5   Lumbar
    • S1 - S5  Sacral
  46. Where does the spinal cord end?
    at the first or second lumbar vertabrae
  47. What is the difference between the white and gray matter in the spinal cord?
    • White matter myelinated axons
    • Gray matter cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
  48. Outermost meninges
    dura mater
  49. middle meninges layer
    arachnoid mater (subarachnoid space)
  50. innermost layer of the meninges?
    pia mater
  51. what space is the CSF located?
    subarachnoid space
  52. Where is the epidural space?
    between the dura mater and vertebral canal
  53. what is a dermatome?
    an area of skin that is innervated by one spinal nerve
  54. What is a plexus?
    a complex interwoven network of nerves
  55. what are the major nerve plexuses?
    • Cervical Plexus
    • Brachial Plexus
    • Lumbar Plexus
    • Sacral Plexus
  56. What is a reflex arc?
    a neural pathway that controls an action reflex
  57. what are the components of a reflex arc
    • sensory nerve
    • sensory neuron
    • CNS
    • motor neuron
    • peripheral effector
  58. what is the stretch reflex?
    • monosynaptic reflex
    • provides automatic regulation of skeletal muscle length
    • patellar reflex is one
  59. What is the withdrawal reflex?
    move affected body parts away from stimulus
  60. what purpose does reflex testing serve?
    they indicate whether or not there is damage to higher centers or descending tracts in adults
  61. What are the major regions of the Brain
    • Cerebrum
    • Cerebellum
    • Brain Stem
    • Deincephelon