Politics Final

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Politics Final
2013-12-09 21:32:34

Politics Final Flashcards
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  1. Alliances
    formal associations in which states pledge to militarily protect each other in specified circumstances
  2. Balancing
    Joining an alliance against states or coalitions whose superior resources could pose a threat
  3. Bandwagoning
    joining an alliance with a superior power to share in the benefits of the alliance
  4. Burden sharing
    how costs of alliance are distributed among member states
  5. Arms control
    effort to limit or ban weapons in states military arsenals
  6. Small arms
    inexpensive small weapons that an individual can carry
  7. Arms race
    competitive increase in armaments by two states or coalitions of states
  8. Security dilemma
    one state increases its power which makes others do the same
  9. Second-strike capability
    ability of state to deliver a devastating counterattack after being attacked by nuclear weapons
  10. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
    strategic doctrine based on the idea that war between the superpowers was deterred when they both were vulnerable to each others second strike capability. (if you bomb a country, they’re going to bomb you back)
  11. Chemical weapons
    weapons that contain chemical elements such as chlorine gas or mustard gas
  12. Biological weapons
    weapons that contain biological agents such as anthrax or plague bacteria
  13. Deterrence
    preventing another actor from doing something they might due (reason #1 why countries acquire weapons and join alliances)
  14. Compellence
    forcing another actor to do something they might not due (reason #2 to join alliance and acquire weapons)
  15. Bullying strategy
    bargaining strategy relying heavily on force or threats of force
  16. Reciprocating strategy
    flexible bargaining strategy in which one side imitates or duplicates the kind of diplomatic moves made by the other actor
  17. Two-level games
    simultaneous negotiations at both the domestic and international level
  18. Size of alliances: (other themes)
    don’t want to spread yourself too thin to where you won’t gain anything when you all win, but don’t want to be so small you can’t win
  19. Non-proliferation Treaty: who’s allowed to have weapons, who isn’t, who pulled out, who never signed (CHP 8 other themes)
    • 189 countries (5 major countries when NPT was first drafted: China, Great Britain, US, Soviet Union and France) signed by 2003,
    • North Korea withdrew from the NPT in 2002.
    • India, Israel & Pakistan refuse to sign.
  20. NATO’s evolution
    • formed to protect Europe during cold war, but now they’ve expanded. 
    • Libya intervention will be on exam.
    • Nato intervention in Libya was successful
  21. Collective security
    idea that aggressive use of force by any state will be met by combined  force of all other states
  22. Peacekeeping
    troop deployment intended to halt armed conflict or prevent its recurrence in conflict areas
  23. Peacemaking
    attempt to force or negotiate settlement between warring factions, often in an internal conflict
  24. Humanitarian intervention
    threats or use of force against a state accused of perpetrating or allowing human rights violations
  25. State-building
    State-building: efforts to create stable legitimate political authority and institutions in post- conflict situations
  26. Examples of collective security institutions (Chp 9 other themes)
    • Examples of collective security institutions:
    • NATO
    • Concert of Europe
    • UN
  27. UN structure:
    • UN structure:
    • Security Council,
    • General Assembly,
    • Secretariat
    • ICJ
  28. International political economy (IPE)
    International political economy (IPE)-area of study focusing on the relationships between international political and economic relationships
  29. Economic liberalism
    Economic liberalism- economic philosophy advocating free trade to increase efficiency and wealth
  30. Free trade
    Free trade-international commerce unrestricted by state-imposed penalties such as tariffs
  31. Collective goods
    goods, that once provided are available to all group members regardless of their individual contributions
  32. Non-Rival
    • Non-Rival- consumption by one does not diminish use by another (air).
    • Non-excludable- it is difficult to prevent people from consuming it once it has been produced (stop light).


                Rival+Excludable= Private Goods

                Rival+Non-Excludable= Common Pool Resources (fish stock)

                Non-Rival+Excludable= Club Goods (toll roads)

                Non-Rival+Non Excludable= Public/Collective Goods (air)
  33. Mercantilism
    Mercantilism- economic philosophy that asserts the primacy of the state and protection of the state`s economic power
  34. Protectionist policies
    Protectionist policies- policies intended to protect the domestic economy from foreign competition (ex. subsidies, tariffs, impose import quotas, place health & safety regulations)
  35. Subsidies
    Subsidies- financial aid from governments to domestic industries
  36. Tariffs
    Tariffs- import tax on foreign products
  37. Import quotas
    Import quotas- limits on the number of goods that can be imported into the country
  38. Dumping
    Dumping- selling products abroad at below-cost prices
  39. Monetary policies
    Monetary policies- state decisions on printing, circulating, and otherwise affecting the value of their currency
  40. Exchange rates
    Exchange rates- values of currencies in relation to each other
  41. Fixed exchange rate
    Fixed exchange rate- values of currencies “pegged” to either another currency or to certain commodities, such as gold
  42. Floating exchange rates
    Floating exchange rates- relative values of currencies as determined by supply and demand of market forces
  43. Most-favored-nation principle
    Most-favored-nation principle- granting the same low-tariff trade status as enjoyed by a state’s most-favored trading partner
  44. Imperial overstretch
    Imperial overstretch- the idea that hegemonic powers overcommit resources, thus undermining their power
  45. Centrally planned economies
    Centrally planned economies- economic systems in which the state determines production, consumption and pricing of commodities
  46. State capitalism
    State capitalism- economic system in which the government is the leading economic actor and uses the markets for political purpose
  47. Liberalism v. mercantilism (chp 10 other themes)
    • Both focus on trade.
    • Liberalism- Free trade for everyone.
    • Mercantilism-Trade for profit of state & state power. Advocate protectionist policies (p360)
  48. Different types of goods
    • excludable
    • non-excludable
    • rival
    • non-rival
  49. Bretton Woods institutions (why created and what they were supposed to do)
    • IMF, 
    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
    • Exchange Rate System,
    • World Bank,
    • basically a monetary system of government created after WWII to bring money back into a broken Europe.
  50. Effects of the Oil Shock for rich countries
    • 400% increase in cost
    • $ flowed into the Middle East from West
    • US printed money= inflation
    • Led to World-wide recession
  51. Purchasing power parities
    Purchasing power parities: a measure of the relative purchasing power of currencies to buy the same amount of goods in different countries. i.e: what money actually buys in various countries around the world
  52. Human Development Index
    Human Development Index: composite index of achievements in basic human capabilities, including life expectancy, education, and income
  53. Terms of trade
    Terms of trade: prices of exported goods relative to imported goods
  54. Repatriated profits
    Repatriated profits: money invested abroad and returned to the investor’s home country
  55. Corporate social responsibility
    Corporate social responsibility: corporations are accountable for the social, economic, and environmental impact of their decisions and operations
  56. Import substitution strategy
    Import substitution strategy: policy to develop and protect industries to produce goods that a country has been importing
  57. Export-oriented strategy
    Export-oriented strategy: exports that fill and profit from a niche in the international political economy
  58. Microfinancing
    Microfinancing: financial services such as small loans that are often provided
  59. Different ways to measure the gap between rich and poor countries
    • GDP,
    • income,
    • purchasing power parity
  60. Effects of the Oil Shock for poor countries (debt)
  61. Explanations of the North-South gap
    Gap between rich and poor countries
  62. Problems of foreign aid
    Problems of foreign aid-for foreign investors, pouring money into a developing country can be risky. The money allotted to the public doesn’t always trickle down to the people.
  63. Problems of MNCs
    • Puts small businesses out of work
    • Pollution
    • Funds don't always stay in country
    • If MNC leaves, many out of work.
    • Meddles in country's politics
  64. Problems of gender discrimination
    Women bear brunt of econ. & political problems.
  65. Common pool resources (CPR)
    • Common pool resources (CPR): accessible to everyone but is not unlimited supply.
    • examples:
    •    oil,
    •    water,
    •    energy….
  66. Tragedy of the commons
    (herder-grazing example) metaphor used to describe the difficulty of achieving CO-OP on natural resources that would have long-term benefits for all, given the short-term benefits of resource exploitation to individuals.
  67. Sustainable development
    Sustainable development: development that meets current economic needs without compromising future economic growth and environmental health
  68. Population momentum
    Population momentum: tendency for population to continue to grow due to high numbers of individuals at childbearing age
  69. Fertility rate
    Fertility rate: Average number of children born to women
  70. Replacement level
    Replacement level: fertility rate at which the number of children replace their mother and father
  71. Demographic transition theory
    Demographic transition theory: proposition that the population growth is significantly influenced by economic development effects on death rates and birthrates
  72. Difficulties of environmental cooperation
    • CO-OP needed to protect global commons
    • rational for each state to pollute
  73. Natural resource issues
    • Oil & natural gas= plentiful but pollution & dependence on Middle East (unstable)
    • H2O shortages
    • Deforestation
    • Soil erosion
  74. Economic globalization
    Economic globalization: economic integration approaching a single world economy
  75. Political globalization across state boundaries
    extension of political power and activity across state boundaries
  76. Global governance
    Global governance: Multiple, interconnecting spheres of political authority beyond sovereign states
  77. Cultural globalization
    Cultural globalization: Worldwide spread of similar norms, values, and practices
  78. Migration
    Migration: movement of people across countries
  79. Refugees
    Refugees: persons who have left their home countries to flee political persecution or conflict conditions
  80. Cultural imperialism
    Cultural imperialism :dominance of one country's culture over others
  81. Problems of globalization
    • Unequal globalization
    • Nationalization
    • Environment