BAP Final Test
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How does the nervous system control homestasis?
What are the two systems that are regulate homostasis in the body
Nervous and the Endocrine
How does the endocrine system control homostastis
the use of hormones
In the nervous system, is the response fast and or short and how long does it take?
the response is fast and it is very short.
In the endocrine system, is the response fast and or short and how long does it take?
the response is is slower and it is longer
In the Endocrine secretion enters where?
- in the interstitual fluid then in blood stream it stays in the body
- examples, insulin and estrogen
What system has a duct?
- Exocrine, because the secretions that enter ducts ultimately exit
- ex. mucus, salvia, sweats and tears.
What are the Endocrine Cells that make hormones?
Pituitary, thyriod, parathyroid, adrenal, and the pineal.
How are hormones carried and which one are affected ?
They are carried through the blood stream, and only certain one are affected
What are the affected hormones cells called
What are lipid-soluble hormones
- steriods, such as testosterone, estrogens,
- thyroid hormones: t3 and t4
What are water-soluble hormones?
- -amino acid derivates--> such as epinephrine, norepinephrine
- -Peptides: antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
- -Proteins: insulin and growth hormone
How are lipid solubles in action?
transport proteins will help with protein synthesis
Where would we find receptors of nucleus in the lipids?
Water solubles in action?
- -they are diffused from blood binds to receptor in plasma membrane
- -ATP to convert to cAMP
- -cAMP serves as a messenger to active certain proteins.
- -Activated proteins causes adding P to reactions:ATP>ADP>
- cAMP is activated
3 Control of hormones secretions?
- Nervous system signals ==>ex. adrenaline
- Chemical changes in blood=> ex. blood Ca2+
- Other Hormones ==> one hormone having an effect on the other
one hormone having an effect on the other is called what?
What does hypothalamus do:
Makes hormones regulate the Pitutary Gland
Pitutary Gland connects to what
Hypothalamus called infundibulum
7 Anterior Pitutary Gland Hormones
- 1. Human Growth Hormone
- 2.Thyroid- Stimulating H
- 3.FSH Follicle Stimulating
- 4. Prolactin
- 6. Adrenalnocorticotropic
- 7.Melanocyte Stimuating H
What serves as major link between nervous and endocrine systems
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
What is Human Growth Hormone?
- promotes synthesis of insulin like growth factors
- promotes healing and injury tissue repair
- maintains bone mass/muscle
What is Thyroid Stimulating Hormone?
Stimulates the formation and secretion of thyroid hormones
Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone?
- In females, FSH starts follicle development, starts egg production,
- LH: makes women ovaulate
- In males, FSH produces sperm production in testes, and LH release of testosterone from testes
Initiates and maintains milk production by mammary glands
Controls ACTH-->Releases Cortosil
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
small amounts in bloodstream, excess amounts causes skin darkening. we do not know much about this
Hormones made in hypothalamus pass down axons to posterior pituitary
what two hormones are released in the Pituitary gland?
Oxytocin and ADH
for child birth, smooths muscle contraction of uterus during childbirth, causes letdown of milk from glands to ducts
stops urinating, causes kidneys to retain more water, also causes vasoconstriction--> increases blood pressure, dehydration, pain and stress--> increase ADH secretion
Thyroid glands: Thyroxin T4 Tridothyroine T3
increases basal metabolic rate with energy involved it makes protein synethesis
Increased T4 T3
leads to an increase BMR and to weight loss
Decreased T4 T3
Decrease BMR and decrease in gain weight
Calcitonin does what
Strengthens bone and decreases calcium in the blood
Parathyroid Gland function
increases # of actvity of osteoclasts that break down bone, slow loss of Calcium also promotes production calcitriol for Vitamin D increase the absorption of Calcium in blood
has panreatic islets,
Pancreas has two cell types known as
Alpha cells, and beta cells
Also known as glucagon it helps low blood glucose hypoglycemia it is told when to release glucogen acts to converts glycogen into glucose to raise blood levels
Also known as insulin; ot helps wit high blood glucose hyperglycemia it is told when to release insulin acts to diffuse in the cell and break up glycogen and stores extra glycogen
There is Type I and Type II; Type I is a born with disease where the beta cells are being attacked and do not produce insulin, Type II beta cells are overworked
What are two Adrenal Glands?
Cortex and adrenal medulla
What in the cortex makes of makes you reabsorbs water and sodium by telling the kidneys?
Aldosterone is also important for what?
Controlling blood pressure
increases rate of protein breakdown, and stimulates liver formation of glucose, breaks down triglycerodes in adipose, anti-inflammatory effects; inhibit white blood cells, depresses immune system, released when people are stressed out
Androgens does what?
produces hair growth during puberty, contributes to libido, converted to estrogens by other body tissues
Adrenal Medulla: is also what...
the inner most protion
Adrenal Medulla functions:
releases epinerphrine and norepinephine increases heart rate, blood pressure, incnreases blood glucose, dilates airways
Who has a direct connection with sympathetic nervous system
produces melatonin and regulates sleep cycle day/ light dark night
Functions of blood:
transports: water, gases, nutrients, hormones, enzymes, electrolytes, wastes, heats
Regulation; ph, temperature, water balance
Protection: blood clotting, defense phagoctic cells, interferons, complement
Composition of Blood
Plasma, Middle: buffy coat composed of white blood cells and platelets and bottom Red blood cells
Formation of blood cells are called?
hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
The formation of of blood cells can take 2 paths
Myeloid Stem Cells, and Lymphoid stem cells
Red Blood Cells -->Erythrocytes
carries hemoglobin--> red pigment and carries oxygen
Structure of blood cell
doesnt have DNA because they lack a nucelus the biconcave gives the flexiblity for passing through
How are the old cells destroyed?
removed by liver, spleen
Hemo: attaches to
Fe Iron transfers to liver then transfers to bone marrow
Globin: Macrophage breaks down
amino acids and reuses for protein synthesis
Red Blood Cell Formation
Kidneys release erythropoietin release
to make extra oxygen in the red blood cells in body
White Blood Cells:
appear white because they lack hemoglobin and two major classes based on presences or absences of granular and agranular
How do you differnciate granular and agranular?
Granular end with 'phils'
Agranular end with 'cytes'
are first responders to infections and the most abundant relase chemicals phagoctosis-eat up
converts to macrophages 'big eaters' they cause puss
respond to parastic infections and controls allergies
intensify inflammatory responses and allergic reactions, releases histamine
What are the three types of Lymphoctes
T cells, B cells and Natural killers
T Cell do what
they directly attach microbes
respond to foreign substances called antigens and produce antibodies which then attach to and inactivate the antigens
are unspecific anything they see abnoromal they kill
What is Leukocytosis
to much of white blood cells
low white blood cell count
Platelets come from where
megakaryocytes and plug damaged blood vessels promote blood clotting
Hemostasis 3 steps to stop bleeding
Vascular spasm: respond to damage quick reduction of blood, Platelet plug formation platelets becom sticky when damage and build a vessel wall, blood clotting, series of chemical reactions involving clotting factors
Pathway to stop bleeding and what plays an important role
Fibrinogen-> Fibrin-> Clot; Calcium
Blood Type A
has anti b antibodies and A antigen, can donate only to Type A and O
Blood Type B
has B antigens and anti A antibodies can donate to Tybe B and O
has Both A and B antigens has niether antibody and is a universal recipent
has both A and B antibodies and is a universal donor
can be passed through and after first pregnancy and attacks the baby blood if it comes in contact with it and if the mother and baby have opposites -,+
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