BAP Final Test

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elizabethsanchez_1025
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252018
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BAP Final Test
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2013-12-09 17:57:55
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BAP
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  1. How does the nervous system control homestasis?
    releasing neurotransmitters
  2. What are the two systems that are regulate homostasis in the body
    Nervous and the Endocrine
  3. How does the endocrine system control homostastis
    the use of hormones
  4. In the nervous system, is the response fast and or short and how long does it take?
    the response is fast and it is very short.
  5. In the endocrine system, is the response fast and or short and how long does it take?
    the response is is slower and it is longer
  6. In the Endocrine secretion enters where?
    • in the interstitual fluid then in blood stream it stays in the body
    • examples, insulin and estrogen
  7. What system has a duct?
    • Exocrine, because the secretions that enter ducts ultimately exit
    • ex. mucus, salvia, sweats and tears.
  8. What are the Endocrine Cells that make hormones?
    Pituitary, thyriod, parathyroid, adrenal, and the pineal.
  9. How are hormones carried and which one are affected ?
    They are carried through the blood stream, and only certain one are affected
  10. What are the affected hormones cells called
    Target cells
  11. What are lipid-soluble hormones
    • steriods, such as testosterone, estrogens,
    • thyroid hormones: t3 and t4
  12. What are water-soluble hormones?
    • -amino acid derivates--> such as epinephrine, norepinephrine
    • -Peptides: antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
    • -Proteins: insulin and growth hormone
  13. How are lipid solubles in action?
    transport proteins will help with protein synthesis
  14. Where would we find receptors of nucleus in the lipids?
    Nucleus
  15. Water solubles in action?
    • -they are diffused  from blood binds to receptor in plasma membrane
    • -ATP to convert to cAMP
    • -cAMP serves as a messenger to active certain proteins.
    • -Activated proteins causes adding P to reactions:ATP>ADP>
    • cAMP is activated
  16. 3 Control of hormones secretions?
    • Nervous system signals ==>ex. adrenaline
    • Chemical changes in blood=> ex. blood Ca2+
    • Other Hormones ==> one hormone having an effect on the other
  17. one hormone having an effect on the other is called what?
    tropic
  18. What does hypothalamus do:
    Makes hormones regulate the Pitutary Gland
  19. Pitutary Gland connects to what
    Hypothalamus called infundibulum
  20. 7 Anterior Pitutary Gland Hormones
    • 1. Human Growth Hormone
    • 2.Thyroid- Stimulating H
    • 3.FSH Follicle Stimulating
    • 4. Prolactin
    • 5.Lutellinzing
    • 6. Adrenalnocorticotropic
    • 7.Melanocyte Stimuating H
  21. What serves as major link between nervous and endocrine systems
    Hypothalamus and Pituitary
  22. What is Human Growth Hormone?
    • promotes synthesis of insulin like growth factors
    • promotes healing and injury tissue repair
    • maintains bone mass/muscle
  23. What is Thyroid Stimulating Hormone?
    Stimulates the formation and secretion of thyroid hormones
  24. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone?
    • In females, FSH starts follicle development, starts egg production,
    • LH: makes women ovaulate
    • In males, FSH produces sperm production in testes, and LH release of testosterone from testes
  25. Prolactin
    Initiates and maintains milk production by mammary glands
  26. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    Controls ACTH-->Releases Cortosil
  27. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
    small amounts in bloodstream, excess amounts causes skin darkening. we do not know much about this
  28. Posterior Pituitary
    Hormones made in hypothalamus pass down axons to posterior pituitary
  29. what two hormones are released in the Pituitary gland?
    Oxytocin and ADH
  30. Oxytocin
    for child birth, smooths muscle contraction of uterus during childbirth, causes letdown of milk from glands to ducts
  31. ADH
    stops urinating, causes kidneys to retain more water, also causes vasoconstriction--> increases blood pressure, dehydration, pain and stress--> increase ADH secretion
  32. Thyroid glands: Thyroxin T4 Tridothyroine T3
    increases basal metabolic rate with energy involved it makes protein synethesis
  33. Increased T4 T3

    leads to an increase BMR and to weight loss
  34. Decreased T4 T3
    Decrease BMR and decrease in gain weight
  35. Calcitonin does what
    Strengthens bone and decreases calcium in the blood
  36. Parathyroid Gland function
    increases # of actvity of osteoclasts that break down bone, slow loss of Calcium  also promotes production calcitriol for Vitamin D increase the absorption of Calcium in blood
  37. Pancreas
    has panreatic islets,
  38. Pancreas has two cell types known as
    Alpha cells, and beta cells
  39. Alpha Cells:
    Also known as glucagon it helps low blood glucose hypoglycemia it is told when to release glucogen acts to converts glycogen into glucose to raise blood levels
  40. Beta Cells
    Also known as insulin; ot helps wit high blood glucose hyperglycemia it is told when to release insulin acts to diffuse in the cell and break up glycogen and stores extra glycogen
  41. Diabetes:
    There is Type I and Type II; Type I is a born with disease where the beta cells are being attacked and do not produce insulin, Type II beta cells are overworked
  42. What are two Adrenal Glands?
    Cortex and adrenal medulla
  43. What in the cortex  makes of makes you reabsorbs water and sodium by telling the kidneys?
    Aldosterone
  44. Aldosterone is also important for what?
    Controlling blood pressure
  45. Cortisol Actions:
    increases rate of protein breakdown, and stimulates liver formation of glucose, breaks down triglycerodes in adipose, anti-inflammatory effects; inhibit white blood cells, depresses immune system, released when people  are stressed out
  46. Androgens does what?
    produces hair growth during puberty, contributes to libido, converted to estrogens by other body tissues
  47. Adrenal Medulla: is also what...
    the inner most protion
  48. Adrenal Medulla functions:
    releases epinerphrine and norepinephine increases heart rate, blood pressure, incnreases blood glucose, dilates airways
  49. Who has a direct connection with sympathetic nervous system
    Adrenal Medulla
  50. Pineal Gland
    produces melatonin and regulates sleep cycle day/ light dark night
  51. Functions of blood:
    transports: water, gases, nutrients, hormones, enzymes, electrolytes, wastes, heats

    Regulation; ph, temperature, water balance

    Protection: blood clotting, defense phagoctic cells, interferons, complement
  52. Composition of Blood
    Plasma, Middle: buffy coat composed of white blood cells and platelets and bottom Red blood cells
  53. Formation of blood cells are called?
    hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
  54. The formation of of blood cells can take 2 paths
    Myeloid Stem Cells, and Lymphoid stem cells
  55. Red Blood Cells -->Erythrocytes
    carries hemoglobin--> red pigment and carries oxygen
  56. Structure of blood cell
    doesnt have DNA because they lack a nucelus the biconcave gives the flexiblity for passing through
  57. How are the old cells destroyed?
    removed by liver, spleen
  58. Hemo: attaches to
    Fe Iron transfers to liver then transfers to bone marrow
  59. Globin: Macrophage breaks down
    amino acids and reuses for protein synthesis
  60. Iron+globin+vitamin B12+Erythropoietin=
    Red Blood Cell Formation
  61. Kidneys release erythropoietin release
    to make extra oxygen in the red blood cells in body
  62. White Blood Cells:
    appear white because they lack hemoglobin and two major classes based on presences or absences of granular and agranular
  63. How do you differnciate granular and agranular?
    Granular end with 'phils'

    Agranular end with 'cytes'
  64. Neutrophils functions
    are first responders to infections and the most abundant relase chemicals phagoctosis-eat up
  65. Monocytes
    converts to macrophages 'big eaters' they cause puss
  66. Eosinophils
    respond to parastic infections and controls allergies
  67. Basophils
    intensify inflammatory responses and allergic reactions, releases histamine
  68. What are the three types of Lymphoctes
    T cells, B cells and Natural killers
  69. T Cell do what
    they directly attach microbes
  70. B cells
    respond to foreign substances called antigens and produce antibodies which then attach to and inactivate the antigens
  71. Natural Killers
    are unspecific anything they see abnoromal they kill
  72. What is Leukocytosis
    to much of white blood cells
  73. Leukopenia
    low white blood cell count
  74. Platelets come from where
    megakaryocytes and plug damaged blood vessels promote blood clotting
  75. Hemostasis 3 steps to stop bleeding
    Vascular spasm: respond to damage quick reduction of blood, Platelet plug formation platelets becom sticky when damage and build a vessel wall, blood clotting, series of chemical reactions involving clotting factors
  76. Pathway to stop bleeding and what plays an important role
    Fibrinogen-> Fibrin-> Clot; Calcium
  77. Blood Type A
    has anti b antibodies  and A antigen, can donate only to Type A and O
  78. Blood Type B
    has B antigens and anti A antibodies can donate to Tybe B and O
  79. Type AB
    has Both A and B antigens has niether antibody and is a universal recipent
  80. Type O
    has both A and B antibodies and is a universal donor
  81. RH Factor
    can be passed through and after first pregnancy and attacks the baby blood if it comes in contact with it and if the mother and baby have opposites -,+

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