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Why aren't random transfusions performed on feline patients for the first time or ever?
strong performed isoantibodies
3 feline bloodtypes
A, B and AB
Percentage of domestic shorthairs with Type A bloodtype:
Percentage of domestic shorthairs with Type B bloodtype:
A type AB feline is:
- 1) very rare
- 2) universal recipient
Describe cross reactivity of feline transfusions:
- Type A cat can receive type B but will have mild reactions
- Type B cat receiving Type A will have a fatal transfusion reaction
How much blood is needed to do a card typing test?
0.4 ml blood in EDTA
This is a type of virus that by transcription its genetic message on a DNA copy is in reverse sequence.
Retrovirus or reverse virus
3 Retrovirus subfamilies (S.O.L.)
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus subfamily
FIV positive means
cat has virus but not the disease
FIV Syndrome means:
cat has virus and the actual disease Feline AIDS
What factors have hindered FIV understanding and vaccination development?
- 1) naturally infected cats harbor several subtypes
- 2) no cross-protection between subtypes hinders effectivity of vaccine
These diseases are the major cause of non-trauma related morbidity and mortality in domestic cats
Infectious viral diseases
When was FIV first seen?
FIV is considered high risk in which areas?
Acute phase of FIV:
Acute - mild fever and malaise, enteritis, stomatistis and respiratory disease for a few days to a few weeks. Can spontaneously recover but not cured
Clinically Healthy Phase of FIV
Animal can appear completely healthy and not show signs for up to 8 years
Terminal Symptom phase of FIV
phase where it is considered feline AIDS - the disease. Immune symptoms decline and death usually occurs through various secondary infections
Primary method of FIV transmission
Horizontal through bite wounds (feral cats largest threat) in the saliva
FIV discovery by and in at .
- Dr. Neils Pedersen
- Janet Yamamoto
- UC Davis
FIV is common in feral cat colonies. Of 300 cats that were infected what percentage were male? Female?
16% male and 5% female
3 primary diseases that cause abortion in cats
What percentage of cats in the US test positive for FIV
Up to 12 percent
What percentage of FIV positive cats also test positive for FeLV?
What percentage of FeLV positive cats also test positive for FIV?
Can FIV be transmitted vertically?
yes usually when the queen is bitten while pregnant
In utero and galactogenic
The most common secondary bacterial infection that usually kills a human AIDS patient is:
Immunofluorescent Assay - specifically looks for IgG and IgA
This is the gold standard that looks for multiple antibody specificity.
Western Blot Test
How much blood is needed for a FIV send out test?
4 mL in EDTA
- Ft Dodge - later picked up by Pfizer
Why if FIV vaccine controversial?
- 1) other failed vaccines have cause a wait-and-see attitude
- 2) will cause a positive on a test since the tests cannot distinguish between antibodies of the disease and vaccine
The 3 groups of cats that FIV vaccine is recommended for:
- 1) cats that go outdoor without supervision
- 2) indoor cats that have a housemate that goes outdoors
- 3) all cats living with a FIV positive cat
FIV vaccination protocol:
Start at 8 weeks, then every 2-3 weeks until a total of 3 vaccines is given. Booster yearly
Feline Leukemia Virus:
Where does FeLV replicate after initial infection?
In the pharyngeal lymph nodes and tonsils
5 stage FeLV pathogeneis
- 1) viral replication tonsils and lymph nodes
- 2) infection of circulation B-lymphocytes
- 3) replication in spleen, internal lymph nodes and bone marrow
- 4) release of infected neutrophils and thrombocytes from bone marrow into circulation
- 5) Infection of epithelial and glandular tissue shedding virus in saliva and urine
Two viruses associated with FeLV
- Feline Sarcoma Virus - mutation of FeLV genes
- Feline Oncornavirus-associated Cell Membrane Antigen (FOCMA)
This is the protein on the cells of FSV and FeLV induced tumors.
Feline-oncornavirus associated cell member antigen (FOCMA)
1964 FeLV was considered what 4 things?
- 1) principle scourge of cats
- 2) accounted for most disease related deaths in cat
- 3) responsible for more syndromes than any other agent
- 4) responsible for est. 33% cancer related deaths of cats
Due to FeLV has been determined to have evolved from ?
- nucleotide sequence similarities
- an ancestor of the rat
What does leukemia mean?
Cancer of white blood cells - the first sign
The 3 subgroups of FeLV and their prevalence:
- FeLV A - 90%
- FeLV B - coninfective with A - 50%: Myeloprliferative, myelosuppressive, immunosuppresive, and neoplastic disease conditions.
- FeLV C - persistent kitten virus: either aborted or born with aplastic anemia and die
- FeLV outcome
- Host immune system mount defense flushing virus from the blood stream
- symptoms last 3-10 days
- 40% of cases
- FeLV Outcome
- Persistent infection of bone marrow and soft tissues
- Can recover but often relapse after stressor and die
- 30% of cases
- FeLV outcome
- Cat harbors virus and is undetectable by in-house testing methods for an average of 2 years
- Cat looks normal
- FeLV outcome
- Cat appears normal in every way
- Virus hides out in epithelial cells and is not able to get out of the cells because of antibody production
- 1-2% of cases
How is FOCMA beneficial?
- Antibodies produced help diagnose FeLV and slow development down
- Has some protective activity against FeLV neoplasms
Shed in saliva but not through bite, transmitted from close contact with others (social disease) i.e. sharing bowls, beds etc
Groups likely to be infected with FeLV
- neonatal kittens: 70-100%
- 8 week kittens: 30-50%
- adolescent and adult cats: less than 30
This is tearing from blocked puncta in the medial canthus of the eye.
Similarities of FIV and FeLV
- 3)myeloproliferative disorders
- 6)congenital infections
Non-neoplastic disease FIV/FeLV
- 2)Immune mediated hemolytic anemia
- 4)Thymic atrophy
Note: does not interfere with viral antigen testing
What was the first FeLV vaccine?
Leukocell - Norden
FIV Diagnostic tests
- IFA (Immunoblot, Western Blot)
FeLV Diagnostic tests
- ELISA - superior to FIV
- Viral isolation
Difference between FIV and FeLV ELISA tests.
- FeLV - antigen
- FIV - antibodies
- Feline Foamy Virus
Previous name for FeFV
Feline Syncytium-forming virus
What is syncytium?
The insulation between the atria and ventricules of the heart
2 forms of FeFV
- 1) Osteoperosis and periartricular periosteal proliferation
- 2) Periartricular erosions
Diagnosis of FeFV
joint fluid abnormalties with neutrophila and large monocytes
- Feline Infectious Peritonitis
- Coronavirus (FCoV)
FIP primary means of transmission
communal/social use of litter box - contact with infectious feces
Two forms of FCoV:
- FIPV - respiratory extremely virulent and always leads to death
- FECV - enteric that is slightly virulent causing mild diarrhea/vomiting
This describes the ever-changing shape of FCoV
which form of FCoV does not have a vaccine?
Which form of FCoV does have a vaccine and is closes related to CCV?
What property of FECV was discovered by Cornell University?
It can mutate into FIP
When was FIPV discovered?
FECV to FIPV
mutate and migrates from intestinal cells to the white blood cells or macrophages where it becomes deadly
2 forms of FIPV
- Effusive wet form - kitten with huge abdomen = accumulation of plasma in peritoneal and pleural spaces
- Non-effusive dry form - CNS and ocular disease that can mimic fading kitten disease and rabies
This is the collapsing of the lungs with the inability to reinflate typical of non-effusive FIP
Diagnosis of FIP
Only definitive way is post mortem histologic exams
Components of FIP treatment
- There is no cure however quality of life can be given with supportive care:
- no stress
- good nutrition
- no concurrent problems
- no further vaccinations
- fluid therapy, antibiotics for secondaries