Feline Diseases

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Author:
tsbatiste
ID:
252027
Filename:
Feline Diseases
Updated:
2013-12-10 01:44:27
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Canine Feline Final
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Section 7
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  1. Why aren't random transfusions performed on feline patients for the first time or ever?
    strong performed isoantibodies
  2. 3 feline bloodtypes
    A, B and AB
  3. Percentage of domestic shorthairs with Type A bloodtype:
    96-99%
  4. Percentage of domestic shorthairs with Type B bloodtype:
    1-4%
  5. A type AB feline is:
    • 1) very rare
    • 2) universal recipient
  6. Describe cross reactivity of feline transfusions:
    • Type A cat can receive type B but will have mild reactions
    • Type B cat receiving Type A will have a fatal transfusion reaction
  7. How much blood is needed to do a card typing test?
    0.4 ml blood in EDTA
  8. This is a type of virus that by transcription its genetic message on a DNA copy is in reverse sequence.
    Retrovirus or reverse virus
  9. 3 Retrovirus subfamilies (S.O.L.)
    • Spumaviridae
    • Oncornaviridae
    • Lentiviridae
  10. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus subfamily
    Lentivirus
  11. FIV positive means
    cat has virus but not the disease
  12. FIV Syndrome means:
    cat has virus and the actual disease Feline AIDS
  13. What factors have hindered FIV understanding and vaccination development?
    • 1) naturally infected cats harbor several subtypes
    • 2) no cross-protection between subtypes hinders effectivity of vaccine
  14. These diseases are the major cause of non-trauma related morbidity and mortality in domestic cats
    Infectious viral diseases
  15. When was FIV first seen?
    1966
  16. FIV is considered high risk in which areas?
    Metropolitan 4-24%
  17. Acute phase of FIV:
    Acute - mild fever and malaise, enteritis, stomatistis and respiratory disease for a few days  to a few weeks. Can spontaneously recover but not cured
  18. Clinically Healthy Phase of FIV
    Animal can appear completely healthy and not show signs for up to 8 years
  19. Terminal Symptom phase of FIV
    phase where it is considered feline AIDS - the disease. Immune symptoms decline and death usually occurs through various secondary infections
  20. Primary method of FIV transmission
    Horizontal through bite wounds (feral cats largest threat) in the saliva
  21. FIV discovery by                     and                    in               at                           .
    • Dr. Neils Pedersen
    • Janet Yamamoto
    • 1986
    • UC Davis
  22. FIV is common in feral cat colonies.  Of 300 cats that were infected what percentage were male? Female?
    16% male and 5% female
  23. 3 primary diseases that cause abortion in cats
    • FIV
    • FeLV
    • Panleukopenia
  24. What percentage of cats in the US test positive for FIV
    Up to 12 percent
  25. What percentage of FIV positive cats also test positive for FeLV?
    50%
  26. What percentage of FeLV positive cats also test positive for FIV?
    15%
  27. Can FIV be transmitted vertically?
    yes usually when the queen is bitten while pregnant

    In utero and galactogenic
  28. The most common secondary bacterial infection that usually kills a human AIDS patient is:
    Staphylococcal pneumonia
  29. IFA
    Immunofluorescent Assay - specifically looks for IgG and IgA
  30. This is the gold standard that looks for multiple antibody specificity.
    Western Blot Test
  31. How much blood is needed for a FIV send out test?
    4 mL in EDTA
  32. FIV Vaccine
    name:
    Manufacturer
    effectiveness:
    • Fel-O-Vax
    • Ft Dodge - later picked up by Pfizer
    • 55%
  33. Why if FIV vaccine controversial?
    • 1) other failed vaccines have cause a wait-and-see attitude
    • 2) will cause a positive on a test since the tests cannot distinguish between antibodies of the disease and vaccine
  34. The 3 groups of cats that FIV vaccine is recommended for:
    • 1) cats that go outdoor without supervision
    • 2) indoor cats that have a housemate that goes outdoors
    • 3) all cats living with a FIV positive cat
  35. FIV vaccination protocol:
    Start at 8 weeks, then every 2-3 weeks until a total of 3 vaccines is given. Booster yearly
  36. Feline Leukemia Virus:
    sub-family
    Oncoraviridae
  37. Where does FeLV replicate after initial infection?
    In the pharyngeal lymph nodes and tonsils
  38. 5 stage FeLV pathogeneis
    • 1) viral replication tonsils and lymph nodes
    • 2) infection of circulation B-lymphocytes
    • 3) replication in spleen, internal lymph nodes and bone marrow
    • 4) release of infected neutrophils and thrombocytes from bone marrow into circulation
    • 5) Infection of epithelial and glandular tissue shedding virus in saliva and urine
  39. Two viruses associated with FeLV
    • Feline Sarcoma Virus - mutation of FeLV genes
    • Feline Oncornavirus-associated Cell Membrane Antigen (FOCMA)
  40. This is the protein on the cells of FSV and FeLV induced tumors.
    Feline-oncornavirus associated cell member antigen (FOCMA)
  41. 1964 FeLV was considered what 4 things?
    • 1) principle scourge of cats
    • 2) accounted for most disease related deaths in cat
    • 3) responsible for more syndromes than any other agent
    • 4) responsible for est. 33% cancer related deaths of cats
  42. Due to                    FeLV has been determined to have evolved from                      ?
    • nucleotide sequence similarities
    • an ancestor of the rat
  43. What does leukemia mean?
    Cancer of white blood cells - the first sign
  44. The 3 subgroups of FeLV and their prevalence:
    • FeLV A - 90%
    • FeLV B - coninfective with A - 50%: Myeloprliferative, myelosuppressive, immunosuppresive, and neoplastic disease conditions.
    • FeLV C - persistent kitten virus: either aborted or born with aplastic anemia and die
  45. Primary Viremia
    • FeLV outcome
    • Host immune system mount defense flushing virus from the blood stream
    • symptoms last 3-10 days
    • 40% of cases
  46. Secondary Viremia
    • FeLV Outcome
    • Persistent infection of bone marrow and soft tissues
    • Can recover but often relapse after stressor and die
    • 30% of cases
  47. Latency
    • FeLV outcome
    • Cat harbors virus and is undetectable by in-house testing methods for an average of 2 years
    • Cat looks normal
  48. Immune Carrier
    • FeLV outcome
    • Cat appears normal in every way
    • Virus hides out in epithelial cells and is not able to get out of the cells because of antibody production
    • 1-2% of cases
  49. How is FOCMA beneficial?
    • Antibodies produced help diagnose FeLV and slow development down
    • Has some protective activity against FeLV neoplasms
  50. FeLV transmission
    Shed in saliva but not through bite, transmitted from close contact with others (social disease) i.e. sharing bowls, beds etc
  51. Groups likely to be infected with FeLV
    • neonatal kittens: 70-100%
    • 8 week kittens: 30-50%
    • adolescent and adult cats: less than 30
  52. This is tearing from blocked puncta in the medial canthus of the eye.
    epiphora
  53. Similarities of FIV and FeLV
    • 1)immunosuppression
    • 2)gingivitis/stomatits/glossitis/halitosis
    • 3)myeloproliferative disorders
    • 4)lymphosarcomas
    • 5)diarrhea/panleukopenia/abortion/polyarthritis
    • 6)congenital infections
  54. Non-neoplastic disease FIV/FeLV
    • 1)thrombocytopenia
    • 2)Immune mediated hemolytic anemia
    • 3)Glomerulonephritis
    • 4)Thymic atrophy
  55. FeLV vaccine
    name:
    manufacturer:
    • PureVax
    • Merial

    Note: does not interfere with viral antigen testing
  56. What was the first FeLV vaccine?
    Leukocell - Norden
  57. FIV Diagnostic tests
    • ELISA
    • IFA (Immunoblot, Western Blot)
  58. FeLV Diagnostic tests
    • ELISA - superior to FIV
    • IFA
    • Viral isolation
  59. Difference between FIV and FeLV ELISA tests.
    • FeLV - antigen
    • FIV - antibodies
  60. FeFV
    name
    subfamily:
    • Feline Foamy Virus
    • Spumaviridae
  61. Previous name for FeFV
    Feline Syncytium-forming virus
  62. What is syncytium?
    The insulation between the atria and ventricules of the heart
  63. 2 forms of FeFV
    • 1) Osteoperosis and periartricular periosteal proliferation
    • 2) Periartricular erosions
  64. Diagnosis of FeFV
    joint fluid abnormalties with neutrophila and large monocytes
  65. FIP
    etiology:
    • Feline Infectious Peritonitis
    • Coronavirus (FCoV)
  66. FIP Family
    Coronaviridae
  67. FIP Order
    Nidovirales
  68. FIP primary means of transmission
    communal/social use of litter box - contact with infectious feces
  69. Two forms of FCoV:
    • FIPV - respiratory extremely virulent and always leads to death
    • FECV - enteric that is slightly virulent causing mild diarrhea/vomiting
  70. This describes the ever-changing shape of FCoV
    Pleomorphic
  71. which form of FCoV does not have a vaccine?
    FECV
  72. Which form of FCoV does have a vaccine and is closes related to CCV?
    FIPV
  73. What property of FECV was discovered by Cornell University?
    It can mutate into FIP
  74. When was FIPV discovered?
    1963
  75. FECV to FIPV
    mutate and migrates from intestinal cells to the white blood cells or macrophages where it becomes deadly
  76. 2 forms of FIPV
    • Effusive wet form - kitten with huge abdomen = accumulation of plasma in peritoneal and pleural spaces
    • Non-effusive dry form - CNS and ocular disease that can mimic fading kitten disease and rabies
  77. This is the collapsing of the lungs with the inability to reinflate typical of non-effusive FIP
    adelectstasis
  78. Diagnosis of FIP
    Only definitive way is post mortem histologic exams
  79. FIP Vaccine
    Name:
    Manufacturer
    • Primucell FIP
    • Pfizer
  80. Components of FIP treatment
    • There is no cure however quality of life can be given with supportive care:
    • no stress
    • good nutrition
    • no concurrent problems
    • no further vaccinations
    • fluid therapy, antibiotics for secondaries

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