Sociology Review

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Sociology Review
2013-12-09 20:42:37

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  1. perspective
    a particular point of view
  2. sociology
    the scientific study of social structure (human social behavior)
  3. sociological perspective
    a view that looks at behavior of groups, not individuals
  4. social structure
    the patterned interaction of people in social relationships
  5. social statics
    the study of social stability and order
  6. social dynamics
    the study of social change
  7. theoretical perspective
    a set of assumptions accepted as true
  8. functionalism
    approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society
  9. manifest functions
    intended and recognized sequences of an aspect of society
  10. latent functions
    unintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society
  11. dysfunction
    negative consequence of an aspect of society
  12. conflict perspective
    approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society
  13. symbol
    anything that stands for something else and has an agreed upon meaning attached to it
  14. symbolic interactionism
    approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols
  15. survey
    research method in which people respond to questions
  16. population
    a group of people with certain specified characteristics
  17. sample
    a group of people with certain specified chracteristics
  18. questionnaire
    a written sect of questions to be answered by a research participant
  19. interview
    a survey method in which a trained researcher asks questions and records the answers
  20. close ended questions
    questions a person must answer by choosing from a limited, predetermined set of responses
  21. open ended questions
    questions a person is to answer in his or her own words
  22. participant observation
    a case study where the researcher becomes a member of the group being studied
  23. culture
    knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society
  24. society
    a specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture
  25. instincts
    innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior
  26. symbols
    things that stand for or represent something else
  27. norms
    rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
  28. folkways
    norms that lack moral significance
  29. mores
    norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
  30. taboo
    a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
  31. law
    a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
  32. values
    broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
  33. nonmaterial culture
    ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavuor
  34. beliefs
    ideas about the nature of reality
  35. material culture
    the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
  36. ideal culture
    cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
  37. real culture
    actual behavior patterns of members of a group
  38. subculture
    a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from in some important respects
  39. counterculture
    a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture
  40. ethnocentrism
    judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards
  41. cultural universals
    general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
  42. cultural perspectives
    the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits
  43. family
    a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption
  44. marriage
    a legal union based on mutual rights and obligations
  45. nuclear family
    family structure composed of one or both parents and children
  46. extended family
    two or more adult generations of the same family whose members share economic resources and a common household
  47. monogamy
    a marriage consisting of one man and one woman
  48. polygamy
    the marriage of a male or female to more than one person at a time
  49. blended family
    a family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has been married before and has a child or children from a previous marriage
  50. cohabitation
    a marriage like living arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage
  51. boomerang kids
    adult children who reform to the home of origin or who continue to live with parents
  52. formal schooling
    education that is provided and regulated by society
  53. open classroom
    a nonbureaucratic approach to education used on democracy, flexibility, and noncompetitiveness
  54. cooperative learning
    instructional method that relies on cooperation among students
  55. integrative curriculum
    an approach to education based on student-teacher collaboration
  56. charter schools
    public schools that are operated like private schools by teachers and administrators
  57. magnet schools
    public schools that focus on particular disciplines such as fine arts or science
  58. meritocracy
    a society in which social status is based on ability and achievement
  59. educational equality
    condition in which schooling produces the same results for lower-class and minority children as it does for other children
  60. cognitive ability
    capacity for thinking abstractly
  61. cultural bias
    the unfair measurement of the cognitive abilities of people in some social categories
  62. school desegregation
    the achievement of a racial balance in the classroom
  63. compensatory education
    specific curricular programs designed to overcome a deficiency
  64. multicultural education
    an educational curriculum that emphasizes differences among gender, ethnic, and racial categories
  65. power
    the ability to control the behavior of others
  66. coercion
    control through force
  67. authority
    power accepted as legitimate by those subject to it
  68. charismatic authority
    authority that arises from the personality of an individual
  69. interest group
    a group organized to influence political decision making
  70. downsizing
    the process by which companies reduce their workforces
  71. relgion
    a unified system of beliefs and practices concerned with sacred things
  72. sacred
    holy; set apart and given a special meaning that goes beyond or transcends immediate existence
  73. profane
  74. legitimate
    to justify or give official approval to
  75. denomination
    one of several religious organizations that most members of a society accept as legitimate
  76. sect
    a religious organization that arises out of a desire to reform an existing religious organization
  77. cult
    religious organization whose characteristics are not drawn from existing religious traditions within a society
  78. secularization
    process through which the sacred loses influence over society
  79. fundamentalism
    the resistance of secularization and the rigid audience to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, and doctrines