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Characteristics of Indigenous People (5)
- 1. tend to be mobile
- 2. communal ownership over valuable resources
- 3. kinship based on social structure
- 4. relatively egalitarian social structures
- 5. tend to control land and resources desired by capitalist state
Current World Population
Largest Country & Second Largest Country
China is the largest, then India
growth of the population, makes a J on the chart
World population in 1800
1 billion people
Last doubling of the population (years)
1950's to 2000
Population predictions for 2050
9-10 billion people
1800's - worried about the population growing to the point where food could not be produced for everyone
Demographic Transition Theory
transition from high birth/death rates to low rates, due to industrialization
Wealth flows theory
- Agricultural family: wealth flows to parents
- Industrialized family: wealth flows to children
Criticisms of demographic transition theory
- doesn't account for less economically developed countries
- also, doesn't take into account diseases such as HIV & waterborne diseases
- World Split into 3 groups:
- 1. terrible conditions cannot be saved
- 2. if they have resources, they can be saved
- 3. the okay group
Who determines what & what if they have biases
- what ethics are going to be used to determine how to distribute the resources we have left?
- Is it possible to save a few more, if so there will be few resources per person.
- Don't fill the lifeboat to capacity, so fewer people can enjoy more resources?
Paul Erlich.... theories
Lifeboat theory & Triage theory
Paul Erlich Predictions
massive famines, major global conflicts over water outbreaks of highly contagious diseases
average number of people per square mile
- growth of a population in a certain area caused by employment opportunities in one place, and lack of employment in another.
- Preindustrial, Industrial, Metropolis
Sex Ratio Imbalance
Overall more women in the world; except in certain countries such as China (there are more males due to social factors)
Green Revolution: Phase 1 - years & details
Phase 1: 1920s - discovered use of soybeans in replenishing the soil. also, tractors were invented & farm equipment improved which helped to cultivate crops faster.
Green Revolution Phase 2: years & details
- Phase 2: 1940s & 1950s
- chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides came out
Green Revolution Phase 3: years & details
- Phase 3: 1970s
- green revolution goes global
How much food is produced?
enough to feed everyone - 3k per day
Grain to beef ratio
16 pounds of grain for 1 pound of beef
Environmental Impact of large cattle farms
- -methane gas
- -cows stand in feces all day, this then runs off into the soil & nearby water sources
- -cows pumped with antibiotics (chemicals)
Corporate farms (agribusiness)
the business of agricultural production. good for large farms & the economy
Difficulty for family farms
- big farms are coming in and producing more and selling the products for less money than the family farms are able to.
- Family farms debt becomes huge due to them trying to compete with the larger farms.
Genetically Modified Foods
Unofficial fourth wave of green revolution. Nutrients not always the same; such as corn which is now not as good for you as it has a lot of sugar & not as much protein. GMO's leading corp is Monsanto Corp. "roundup ready soybeans". Concern is the their interaction with natural organism will hurt the natural organisms.
Fair trade Coffee
Starbucks sells fair trade coffee, but you have to ask for it .... $1.26 per pound: what they are getting from fair trade.... it is when people get paid a fair amount for the coffee they are producing.
in south east Asia people lack vitamin A, so they created “golden rice” which has a much higher vitamin A content
- Animal farm with 14,000 animals or more
- ex. Harris Ranch (massive cattle farm)
Water Runoff from Farms (pollution)
An example of the water run offs from farms is they wash the cows with a sprinkler, all the dirt and feces runs off the cows and into the soil and it also goes into the nearby rivers & streams causing the water to be polluted
more commonly known as slash and burn farming... harvest crops, cut stocks down (slash them) then you burn them...produces more calories = you put in one calorie of work 11 calories come out - meaning calorie as energy
Impact of Oil Prices on Food
- increase in oil prices = increase in food prices
- the price of oil goes up, so it makes it more expensive to run the machinery, then the prices of food goes up because it cost more to produce the food due to the price of the oil which is needed to run the equipment.
Speacialty Product: Kobe beef comes from Kobe, Japan.... can only be called Kobe beef if it is from Kobe, japan and has to be a certain type of cow, which is a Wagyu cow. Very expensive type of meat.
Marcuse - "liberation of nature"
Grow the economy at expense of environment; but eventually we can get to the point where we can use technology to “free the man and nature from destruction abuse of science and technology in the science of exploitation”
Adorno/Horkheimer – exploitation of nature
The domination/exploitation of the natural environment leads to the domination/exploitation of humans IE. Trees/rocks/etc seen only in dollar amount means we will look at humans only in dollar amount; look at humans as dollar amount, toxic waste will be put on lower class citizens
Bullard - “Any environmental policy or directive that differentially affects individuals, communities, or groups based on race or color
They look at things like what can we do to put money in our pocket with no regard for the individual , They do it to poor people because they can’t fight back very well, If you don’t care about the environment you may tend to not care that much about the people living there
Social Construction of an Environmental problem (Hannigan)
- 1. “Scientific authority/validation of claims”
- 2. “Popularizers” - people who can frame the problem
- 3. Great levels of media attention (continual
- 4. Dramatization of the problem in symbolic terms (visual)
- 5. Visible economic incentives for positive action
- 6. Institutional sponsor to ensure legitimacy and continuity of the problem
AIDS/ impact of HIV on Africa
34 million people living with AIDS, 35 million people died due to it; world’s leading infectious killer
Mosquito-borne; Problem in: El Salvador; Tropic Zones; can be asymptomatic, mild, to dengue shock (fatal because of abnormal capillary permeability = messes up blood) THERE IS NOSPECIFIC TREATMENT; developing countries are much more at risk, 50 million infections/year and cases are RISING
- Intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food/water contaminated with bacteria vibro cholera; causes diarrhea, dehydration, death, vomiting (usually due to poor drinking water); 80-90% are mild to moderate severity
- - Hard to distinguish between cholera & acute diarrhea
- mosquitos give it to you. symptoms show up 10-15days after the mosquito bites the person. Can be life threatening because it disrupts blood supply to vital organs, infects red blood cells.
- -Mosquito-borne BUT parasite; fever, headache, vomit; get sick after 10-15 days, can easily become life threatening = medication isn’t very good; 2010 = 660 deaths mostly in African children (sickle cell disease is an African cell adaption in order to survive malaria)
#1 cause for death in children
- infectious disease spreadby direct physical contact or breathing the secretions of infected individuals.
- bacterial infection in the upper respiratory tract.
about 1/3 of the world is infected with TB, but only a small portion become sick. People with weak immune systems are more susceptible to TB, people with HIV are 20-30 times more likely to get it
Vectors for disease
the methods through which disease is spread; mostly waterborne diseases & mosquito. Can include environmental factors as well as human behaviors.
"Beaver Fever" Common in children in developing countries. prominent symptoms are: diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, abdominal pain; less prominent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and fever. Lasts 2-4weeks but 30-40% will develop chronic infection (bacterial)
Crisis of succession
when there is no clear leader who will emerge once the current dictator leaves
Reasons for decline in dictatorship
Military defeat & crisis of succession
Trend towards decline in dictatorship (when)
Since the 2nd half of the 20th century
Southern Europe: Spain - reason for ending of dictatorship
Crisis of succession - 1975
Southern Europe: Portugal - reason for ending of dictatorship
Military defeat in Africa - 1974
Southern Europe: Greece - ending of dictatorship
Military defeat in Cyprus - 1974
Eastern Europe - fall of dictatorship - reason & year
Dictatorships fell with the fall of the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) - Fall started in 1989
Dictatorship: Latin America -
Communist or Anti-Communist?
Most prominent dictatorship?
Why did most fail?
- Mostly anti-communist.
- Most prominent: Cuba - Fidel Castro, now his brother Raul.
- Most failed due to mass social movements, economic problems, & loss of support by the US
Dictatorships: Southeast Asia - who is still under dictatorship?
- North Korea still has a dictator.
- Several Asian nations were under dictatorship.
North Korea, Cuba, many African nations: Cameroon, Zimbabwe, Chad, and Gambia
6 steps in the process od ethnocide:
1. Control of frontier land. 2. Military intervention. 3. Create land policies. 4. Cultural modification. 5. Education.6. Economic development
Indigenous People percentage of world population
5% of the worlds population
What is Micro-Credit
Small Scale Loans
Grameen Bank: what does it mean, who started it, who is money loaned to, high or low repayment rate?
- Grameen bank basically means the village bank.
- Created by Mohammad Yunus.
- Money loaned to women (they are less likely to waste the money & they benefit their families, not waste the money).
- Really high rate of re-payment.
Korten: "Cowboys in a spaceship"
basically saying we are acting like cowboys (who have unlimited resources) but we are on a spaceship with very limited resources, so we need to act like astronauts on a spaceship & conserve things and not use in abundance
Frontline World: Coffee Crisis
there is too much coffee being produced worldwide, so the prices for the actual coffee bean are plummeting. Plantations are being abandoned because they cannot afford to pay the workers
peer to peer micro credit, they have a 100%repayment rate, has helped many small businesses get started.
Texaco/Chevron - what'd they do
they participated in environmental racism and basically destroyed another country.