cognition chapter 7

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cognition chapter 7
2013-12-09 17:25:39

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  1. a map of space coded relative to the position of the body
    egocentric space
  2. a map of space coded relative to the position of eye gaze
    retinocentric space
  3. a map of space coding the location of obejcts and places relative to each other
    allocentric space
  4. integrating information across sensory modalities
    cross-modal perception
  5. the process by which certain information is selected for further processing and other information is discarded
  6. the brain represents ____ at different levels of abstraction and in different ways
  7. from the brains point of view, space is a common ______ of most perceptual systems
  8. because space is a common dimension of most perceptual systems, _____ modal perception is a thing
  9. our perceptual systems are ____ to process fully all the information that they receive at any given point in time, by _____ processing information in particular regions the problem is solves. this filtering out other information is __ ____
    unable; selectively; spatial attention
  10. ____ is needed to avoid sensory overload. the brain does not have the ____ to fully process alll the information it receives
    attention; capacity
  11. attention is often to a ____ or a ____ in processing
    filter; bottleneck
  12. a failure to consciously see something because attention is directed away from it
    inattentional blindness
  13. participants fail to notice the appearance/disappearance of objects between two alternating images
    change blindness
  14. there is a natural tendency for ____  and eye _____ to go together because visual acuity is greatest at the point of fixation
    attention; fixation
  15. the most useful aspects of the spotlight metaphor are to emphasize the notion of limited ____ and to emphasize ____ characteristics of attention
    capacity; spatial
  16. a slowing of reaction time associated with going back to a previously attended location
    inhibition of return
  17. attention that is externally guided by a stimulus
    exogenous orienting
  18. attention is guided by the goals of the perceiver
    endogenous orienting
  19. a task of detecting the presence of absence of a specified target object in an array of other distracting objects
    visual search
  20. this theory is not only a theory of spatial attention but also a theory of how we combine the different attributes that make up objects (eg. color and location)
    Feature Integration Theory or FIT
  21. according to feature integration theory (FIT), perceptual features such as color and shape are coded in _____ and ____ to attention
    parallel and prior
  22. the ability to detect an object amongst distractor objects in situation in which the number of distractors presented is unimportant
  23. FIT assumes that pop out occurs by allocating ____ attention to the location of candidate objects. If the objects turns out not to be the target, then the "spotlight" inspects the next candidate
  24. a situation in which visual features of two different objects are incorrectly perceives as being associated with a single object
    illusory conjunctions
  25. finding a blue t in the middle of red l's
    example of FIT
  26. according to the FIT. attention needs to be deployed to ______ features of the same object correctly
  27. a theory of attention which information is selected according to perceptual attributes
    early selection. FIT is an example of this
  28. the main reason for having attentional mechanisms is to select some information for ______ processing at the _____ of other information
    further; expense
  29. a theory of attention in which all incoming information is processed up to the level of meaning (semantics) before beign selected for further processing
    late selection
  30. if an ignored object suddenly becomes the attended object, then participants are slower at processing it
    negative priming (an example of late selection)
  31. when there is a high ____ load, then selection may be early but in condition of low load in which few objects are present, then there is a ____ for all objects to be _____ meaningfully consistent with late selection
    high; capacity; processed
  32. the ventral route (what) leading to the temporal lobes may be concerned with ______ objects. in contrast the dorsal (where) route is concerned with ____ objects in space
    identifying; locating
  33. single cell recordings from parietal loves of monkeys have identified neurons that _____ visual spatial information with ____ information
    combine; postural
  34. parietal neurons tend to respond according to abrupt onset of a stimulus rather than its mere _____
  35. a failure to attend to stimuli on the opposite side of space to the lesion. patients with lesions to the posterior parietal lobe can present this syndrome
    hemispatial neglect 
  36. neglect suggests that in humans, there is likely to be a hemispheric ______ such that the right parietal lobe is _____ specialized for spatial _____ than the left
    asymmetry; more; representation 
  37. a tendency to mis-localize heard sounds onto a seen source of potential sounds
    ventriloquist effect
  38. mechanisms that bind together features like FIT does, may also be extended to explain the ____ of features across different _____
    binding; senses
  39. single cell data from animals indicate that regions in the parietal cortex _____ different sensory signals
  40. provided that a stimulus is at the critical location, it may not matter whether the stimulus itself is _____ or ____
    visual; auditory
  41. a severe difficulty in spatial processing normally following bilateral lesions of parietal love; symptoms include simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and optix apraxia
    balints syndome
  42. inability to perceive more than one object at a time
  43. -inability to perceive more than one object at a time (simultanagnosia)
    -inability to reach in the proper direction for an object under visual guidance (optic ataxia)
    -fixation of faze without a primary deficit of eye movement (optic apraxia)
    balints syndrome
  44. the brain contains different _____ for computing ___ space and _____ space
    mechanisms; body; external
  45. balint patients are likely to group parts into wholes if they share shape, color or if theyre ____ together. This suggests that some early _____ binding is possible ___ to attention
    connected; feature; prior
  46. a factor that determines grouping of parts into wholes is the ____ of the stimulus and how a given stimulus is interpreted (____ down influences)
    familiarity; top
  47. spatial representations are not only needed to appreciate the _____ relationship between objects but also to support the kinds of ____ needed to bind individual objects ____ together
    spatial; processes; features
  48. patients with hemispatial neglect fail to attend to stimuli on the ____ side of space to their lesion
  49. two ways to test for hemispatial neglect
    • -line bisection
    • -cancellation tasks
  50. task involving judging the central point of a line
    line bisection
  51. a variant of the visual search paradigm in which the patient must search for targets in an array, normally striking them through as they are found
    cancellation task