music history 151 final exam

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  1. What two big scientists appeared after WWI that influenced modernism?

  2. what was the response to modernism in painting, writing, and music?
    • painting > cubism developed
    • Writing > stream of consciousness writing developed
    • Music > new harmonies were made from new scales and some composers strayed away from rhythm and meter entirely
  3. What is the Impressionistic ideal in terms of painting?

    what was the music impressionistic ideal and who was an impressionistic composer
    render simple scenes from everyday life using networks of color patches

    tried to catch the perceived quality of light

     whose music focuses on suggestion and atmosphere (dukes, resphigi,)
  4. what is the symbolistic ideal in poetry and who was a major composer who was in this artistic ideal
    unrealistic movement

    revolted against the realism of words being used for the purpose of having a defination

    wanted words to have symbolism without fitting into form or function

    debussy was in the musical variant of this artistic ideal
  5. what is expressionism
    german movement that is completely abstract that attempted to look inward
  6. what are the fauves
    french movement that experimented with distorted images
  7. talk about modernist music before WWI in terms of melody, scales, and dissonance
    • melody> began to include distortions and irregular intervals that can be hard to listen to.
    • scales> pentatonic, whole tone, and octatonic scale were incorporated into western music. 
    • dissonance> harmony became more and more dissonant and active tones no longer needed to be resolved "properly"
  8. talk about Debussy and his impressionistic music
    Investigated many new tone colors, harmonies, and new ways to express emotion in music

    themes and motives are usually fragmentary and tentative with many irregular phrases

    forms could be blurry and it was all about atmosphere

    He actually hated being called impressionistic he preferred french avant-garde
  9. listening: Three Nocturns
    written by claude debussy 

    attempted to give the impression of clouds and the different shades in the clouds

    english horn solos

    blurry aba' form
  10. talk about debussy in terms of his music
    went to the paris conservatory of music

    at the paris world exhibition in 1889 he was exposed to javanese gamelan music, nonwestern scales, and Musorgsky's music and as a result his music changed dramatically.

    he worked with Tchaikovsky's patron Madame Von Meck

    • He crystallized his musical style in his early thirties
    • he is famous for his orchestration and his piano writing.
  11. what is the overarching story of stravinsky's 3 ballets? also who were they written for?
    firebird - vary tale about the firebird, prince ivan and an ogre

    petrushka - story of a carnival barker and his puppet

    the Rite of Spring- about the fertility cults of prehistoric slavic tribes

    written for the Ballet Russes

    they also all contained bits of folk music
  12. talk about Stravinsky in terms of his life
    • son of an opera singer
    • studied with rimsky-korsakov

    • his style is sometimes called neo classicism
    • he had 3 compositional periods
    • 1) sounded like warmed over tchaikovsky
    • 2) primitivism with lots of wild tone colors and lots of osinato with generally very harsh harmony
    • 3) neo classism or a reinterpretation of 17th and 18th century music
  13. what is Primitivism in music
    Primitivism [in music] was a reaction from the overrefinement of such artists as Debussy and Ravel. Its adherents favored simple, clear-cut tunes of folk character that revolved around a central note and moved within a narrow compass; massive harmonies based on blocklike chords moving in parallel formation with harshly percussive effect; and a strong impulsion to a tonal center. Much in evidence were ostinato rhythms repeated with an almost obsessive effect and a rugged orchestration featuring massed sonorities

    rite of spring is a great example
  14. listening: the Rite of Spring
    • written by Igor Stravinsky
    • choreography by Nijinsky caused a riot

    talks about a series of ancient fertility rites that culminates with the ceremonial sacrifice of a virgin

    features highly dissonant polyphony, ostanato patterns, and layering of folk songs
  15. talk about arnold schoenberg in terms of his life
    grew up in vienna and was largely self taught in music

    before 1906 he was a post romantic composer and was extreamly chromatic

    1906-1924 he was an atonal composer. dissonance became the central aspect of his harmony

    he eventually mixed atonalism and 12 tone music

    he was jewish and left europe when the nazi party came to power and came to los angeles
  16. listening: Pierrot lunaire
    written by schoenberg

    • song cycle about an eternally sad clown
    • he drinks alcohol and goes temporarily insane and feels guilty about it then recovers

    • 21 songs each with different instrumentation
    • all in rondeau form 
    • ABaaAbAB
    • performed in sprechstimme
  17. Listening: Wozzeck
    Written by alban berg

    • in an opera
    • uses leitmotiv and no aria

    story of franz wozzeck who is an inarticulate and impoverished solder who's lover sleeps with the drum major and wozzeck protests the drum major beats him. he then kills marie goes mad and kills himself
  18. talk about serialism
    created by schoenberg to impose order on his new system of music

    • he held the 12 pitches to a fixed order called a 12 tone row
    • notes always appear in this order rhythm doesn't matter and they can be played in any key, backwards or inverted
  19. talk about anton webern in terms of his life and music
    • he was a conductor, musicologist and instructor. His work often turned towards abstraction often pointillistic (plink plunk)
    • is atonal and serial
    • his compositions are extremely short
  20. why did alban berg enjoy more success than the other composers in the second vienese school
    he kept an open line to romantic tradition
  21. talk about charles ives in terms of his life
    he was the son of a music teacher and was an organs as a teenager

    went to yale and took two jobs one in business and one playing organ

    he eventually was only in business selling life insurance

    • composed only in his spare time
    • he did see his music become successful before he died
  22. listening: second orchestral second movement "the rock strewn hills join in the peoples outdoor meeting"
    • written by charles ives
    • jumbled sound bits that are quoted 

    hymn is orchestrated into a march
  23. listening: the unanswered question
    written by ives

    requires two conductors 

    solo trumpet everywhere
  24. talk about twentieth century traditionalism
    • some people never joined the avant-garde
    • very obvious in film music but other composers included strauss, puccini, prokofiev, rachmaninov
  25. talk about Maurice ravel
    • born in france and was attracted to paris 
    • music is marked by refinement, hyper elegance, and crispness
    • falls between impressionism and neoclassicism
    • master of orchestration
  26. piano concerto in g
    written by ravel 

    for a piano and small orchestra
  27. talk about bela bartok in terms of his life
    • from hungary but came to isa to get away from germany
    • showed talent as a pianist and composer 
    • music is generally tonal, very counterpuntal, and loves thematic development.

    • his music synthesizes folk melodies that were scientifically collected with western art music
    • became a prolific composer and a fine pianist

    he directed the budapest academy of music and wrote the mikrokosmos which is a series of piano pieces from easiest to most difficult

    was a nationalist
  28. music for strings, percussion, and celesta
    written by bela bartok

    • can be thought of a small informal symphony
    • second movement is sonata form

    difficult to hear the movement from I-V-I
  29. talk about Aaron Copland in terms of his life
    • son of russian-jewish immigrants
    • studied in paris with nadia boulanger (neoclassical) 

    heavily influenced by stravinsky but his work grew more traditional

    he was a nationalist and promoted american music by adding traditional american music into his compositions, organizing american concerts and made a composers alliance (populism = american nationalism)

    worked as a proessor at tangle wood and commonly worked with the boston symphony orchestra
  30. appalachian spring
    written by aaron copland

    about a farmer and his wife moving to the west and living their life
  31. listening alexander nevsky
    written by sergi prokofiev 

    • early sound film and propaganda piece
    • about a russian hero who after defeating the vikings is called on to unite russia against germany
  32. talk about sergi prokofiev's life
    child prodigy who became and pianist, conductor, and composer

    started modernist but moved toward neoclassicism and was a nationalist film composer

    started in russia then left. and it was because he had the connections outside of russia that he was treated well
  33. what new sound materials became more common
    non musical noises, electronics, prepared piano and more percussion became standard
  34. what was musique concrete
    • sounds were recorded on tape and manipulated
    • electronic manipulation of natural sounds
  35. listening five orchestral pieces
    by anton webern

    extremely short with high intensity
  36. what is aleatoric music
    chance music

    music where the composer leaves some aspect of the music to chance
  37. listening lux aterna
    written by gyorgy ligeti

    • sixteen solo singers and chorus
    • begins with one pitch and expands from that pitch
  38. talk about gyorgy ligeti
    studied at the budapest academy of music before becoming a professor there

    exemplifies the search for new sororities

    creates sound complexities that change over time
  39. listening peome electronique
    written by varese

    used electronically generated sounds and musique concrete

    recorded voice is manipulated electronically
  40. john cage
    • father of aleatoric music
    • studied with schoenberg
    • also was a mushroom expert and studied buddhism
  41. what is minimalism
    very simple melodies, motifs, and harmonies repeated many times
  42. listening music for 18 musicians
    by steve reich

    • minimalism
    • lots of percussion
    • four singers who do not sing words
  43. listening from the grammar of dreams
    • cycle of 5 songs for 2 sopranos 
    • 2 texts at the same time

    by Kaija Saariaho
  44. listening el nino
    • by john adams
    • oratorio about the infant christ

    • pues mi dips ha nació a pansar
    • haunting lullaby that is a musical dialogue between mary and the chorus
    • ABA' form
  45. who were the two pioneers of extreme serial type music after WWII
    Boulez and Stockhausen

    serialized everything at times
  46. what is Post Romantic music
    composers who stayed with elements of romanticism during the 19th and 20th centuries rather than moving into modernism

    • this music is still extremely chromatic
    • created by schoenburg
  47. what is ethnomusicology
    the recording and study/use of folk music. During this time period it was focused on non western cultures
  48. what is neoclassicism
    was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint. As such, neoclassicism was a reaction against the unrestrained emotionalism and perceived formlessness of late Romanticism, as well as a "call to order" after the experimental ferment of the first two decades of the twentieth century.
  49. what is populism in music
    basically american nationalism
  50. who is martha graham
    • american choreographer 
    • worked with copland on appalachian spring
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music history 151 final exam
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