lecture notes cognition attention and such

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lecture notes cognition attention and such
2013-12-09 19:35:08

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  1. process by which some information is selected for info and other info is discarded. only have so much of it
  2. Simon and Chabris gorilla video is an example of inattentional blindness
    innatentional blindness
  3. -way to deal with potential info overload
    -may be important to bind together different aspects of conscious perception that occur at same tiem
    functions of attention
  4. research shows that our attention is not _____, it moves!
    static. it can move from one location to another. zoom in or out. this is not the same as eye fixation
  5. -not perceived as a continuous single entity
  6. locations on sensory surfaces
    retinocentric space
  7. location of objects relative to the body
    egocentric space
  8. location of objects relative to each other
    allocentric space
  9. parietal lobes are considered the ____ route
  10. what controls attention
    • -exogenous factors (outside)
    • -endogenous factors (internal)
  11. features of stimuli are termed ____ selection processing
  12. what the stimuli means to us are considered ____ selection, or in other word negative priming
  13. early vs late selection depends on the ______ load
  14. it is easier to process stimuli in terms of ____ if cognitive load is ____
    meaning; small
  15. if you previously ignored an object the _____ time will be ____ than if it were attended to on the second time
    reaction; slower
  16. unattended information is held in a _____ store where it can be processed later
    temporary. ex: green mamba story
  17. cocktail party effect
    always attending to information
  18. we can process the perceptual features of targets if _____ are very ____ from the target
    distractors; dissimilar. ex: lime green hats at Gisney Land
  19. attention targets are processes for _____ and ____ exposure
    meaning; prior exposure (negative priming)
  20. Hemispheric Specialization for Visual Attention :right hemisphere is more specialized for _____ processing. left side of the brain is ____ primarily
    spatial; space
  21. because of hemispheric specialization for visual attention, we have a tendency to ____ better to the ___ side of space
    attend; left
  22. normal bias to pay more attention to left side of space
    pseudo neglect
  23. -typically parietal lobe damage
    -left side of space is lost
  24. this study showed that the ventral steam may continue to process neglected objects up to the stage of object recognition and possibly semantics.
    burning house experiment
  25. -inability to attend to more than one object at same time 
    -damage to the top of the temporal occipital lobes on both sides of the brain
    balints syndrome
  26. -with vs. without hyperactivity
    -often helped by drugs and or cognitive behavioral therapy
    attention disorders
  27. drugs for attention disorders
    • -ritalin
    • -adderal
  28. -blocks the reuptake of dopamine
    -dopamine is mostly inhibitory and part of the reward system
  29. -mixed amphetamines
    -highly addictive
    -increases dopamine, serotonin, and noreepinephrine
  30. -some cells in hippocampus respond maximally when animal in in a certain location
    -rat hippocampus stores spatial maps of the environment
    -allocentric. ie. independent of animal viewpoint
    study by O'Keefe and Nadel
  31. right hippocampus is associated with ___ ___ vs. left hippocampus which is associated with _____ _____
    spatial memory; event memory
  32. experience effects for humans: the ___ grows the longer (taxi drivers) on the job
    -greater volume in this area for taxi drivers
    -overall brain volume was not increased, just this area
    -other areas showed lower gray matter density in the taxi drivers
  33. -link sensory and ego centric maps of space to create representations of observable environment
    parietal lobes
  34. -stores long term representations of space that need not be presently observed or even viewpoint specific
  35. -system of control processes needed to optimize performance
    -involves attention, memory, planning, initiating, monitoring, error correction etc
    executive function
  36. inhibiting (which is an ____ function) is just as important as making decsions
  37. factors that influence _____ - solving
    -expertise (practice/experience)
    -mental set (difficulty to change)
    -functional fixedness
  38. ____ effects on problem solving
    -top down processing
  39. ____ down influences memory, specifically what we need
  40. problem solving is _____ specific. we need memories for them
  41. tendency to solve problems in one particular way, even when a different approach might be more productive
    mental set aka negative set
  42. a tendency to use objects/ concepts in only their customary and visual way. think of the two string problem
    two string problem
  43. deep useful understanding of the nature of a difficult problem, come suddenly and without warning
  44. -different states of resting activity
    -allowing more input from visual environment
    -less inhibition, lower alpha waves
    -greater activity in their right hemisphere
    high insight peoples
  45. -about 8-12 hertz, associated with low activty
    alpha waves
  46. brain waves associated with attention
  47. brain waves associated with synchrony between different modules in the brain
    gamma waves
  48. -planning or decision making
    -error correction or trouble shooting
    -responses that are not well learned or contain novel sequences of actions
    -dangerous or technically difficult
    -when overcoming a strong habitual response or resisting temptation
    making executive decisions
  49. prefrontal cortex is activated with ____ and ____ making
    planning and decision
  50. executive functioning correlates with the __ ___ cortex
    pre frontal
  51. there are many ___ areas of the prefrontal cortex and each seem to have a ____ task
    sub; specific
  52. evolutionary ideas of development of the frontal lobes are
    -perhaps evolved to ____ social behavior