Anatomy chapter 10

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Anatomy chapter 10
2013-12-09 20:21:16
Anatomy book test chapter 10
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  1. 3 types of muscle
    • 1) skeletal 
    • 2) Cardiac 
    • 3) smooth
  2. 5 Key Function of muscles
    • 1) Movement 
    • 2) Maintain posture and position 
    • 3) Support soft tissues 
    • 4) Guard entrances 
    • 5) Maintain body temperature
  3. Epimyium
    a dense layer of collagen tissues
  4. Perimysuim
    Connective tissue that divides the muscle tissue into into individual muscle fibers
  5. Fascicle
    a bond of muscle fibers
  6. Endomysium
    Connective tissue that surrounds the individual skeletal muscle cells
  7. Sarcolema
    cell membrane of a muscle fiber surrounds the sarcoplasm
  8. Sarcoplasm
    cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
  9. T-Tubules
    narrow tubes that are continuous with the sacroplasm at right angles
  10. Myofibrils
    Cylindrical structures surrounded by a T-Tubule
  11. Myofilament
    Protein filaments that make up myofibrils, contain actin and myosin
  12. Actin (Thin)
    Thin filaments that make up the myofilaments, participate in muscle contraction
  13. Myosin (thick)
    Thick filaments that make up the myofilaments that participate in muscle contraction
  14. Sarcomere
    Individual contraction units of myosin and actin
  15. F- actin
    • 300-400 molecules of G actin twisted together 
    • have active sites that bind to thick filaments
  16. Tropomyosin
    • strands of these cover active sites on F-actin to keep interaction ffrom happening at the wrong time 
    • each one covers 7 actives sites
  17. Tropanin
    • Made of three globular subunits 
    • 1) binds to tropomysin- locking them together 
    • 2) binds to G-actin, holding the troponin 
    • 3) has a receptor that binds the Ca+2 when empty while resting
  18. Sliding Filaments theory- when muscle fibers contract
    • 1) the H-zone and 1 bands get smaller
    • 2) the Zones of overlap get larger
    • 3) the Z lines move closer together 
    • 4) the width of the A band remains constant
  19. Neuromusclar Junction
    Special junction in control of skeletal muscle activity
  20. Synaptic cleft
    Separates the terminal from the neuron
  21. Neuron stimulation in muscle fibers
    (Memorize the order)
  22. All-or-None Principle
    muscle fibers contract all the way or not at all
  23. Summation
    The smooth and steady increase of tension caused by increasing the number of units active
  24. 2 types of Isotonic Contraction
    • Concentric- muscle tension exceeds resistance and the muscle shortens 
    • Eccentric- Peak tension is less than resistance and the muscle elongates
  25. ATP stored as creatine phosphate formula
    ATP + creatine --- ADP + creatine phosphate
  26. Normal muscle function requirements (3)
    • 1) Substantial inter-cellular energy reserves 
    • 2) Normal circulatory 
    • 3) Normal blood oxygen concentration
  27. Oxygen debt
    Oxygen needs to supply what was not there during anaerobic respiration
  28. 3 types of muscle fibers
    • 1) fast 
    • 2) slow 
    • 3) Intermediate
  29. Fast fibers (know one characteristic)
    • Most Muscle cells 
    • Contract in less than 0,01 seconds 
    • Large in diameter
  30. slow fibers
    • 1/2 the diameter of fast fibers 
    • more specialized 
    • can sustain contractions longer
  31. Intermediate Fibers
    • Have properties of slow and fast 
    • look more like fast fibers but with more capillaries
  32. Hypertrophy
    Enlargement of the muscle
  33. Atrophy
    Reduction in muscle size and mass
  34. Anaerobic
    being activity in which the body incurs an oxygen dept
  35. Aerobic
    involving, utilizing, or increasing oxygen consumption for metabolic process in the body
  36. Aging Effects
    • 1) Skeletal muscle fibers get smaller in diameter 
    • 2) Less elasticity 
    • 3) Exercise tolerance decreases 
    • 4) Ability to recover from injuries decreases
  37. Plasticity
    Can stretch and adjust to the new length without contracting