Nutrition Final

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  1. Retinol, B-carotene
    Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin A found in animal products
    Retinyl-Palmitate (active form)
  3. Vitamin A found in plants
    • Carotinoids (beta-carotene most important)
    • Dairy products highest amounts due to fortification
  4. Function of Retinol (Vit A)
    • Structure of rods and cones
    • Hormone affecting gene expression
    • Glycoprotein synthesis (Cell differentiation)
  5. Symptoms: Xerophthalmia (atrophy of periocular gland), Goose flesh skin, #1 cause of blindness in developing countries
    Vitamin A (retinol) deficiency
  6. most highly active form of vitamin D found in the diet
    D3 Cholecalciferol (animal product)
  7. Vitamin D circulates in the blood as
  8. Where is 25-hydroxycholecalciferol converted into its from
    • Liver via hydroxalation 
    • Kidney via a-1hydroxalation enzyme
    • Active form = 1,25 dihydroxycalciferol
  9. What is the function of vitamin D
    Maintain serum phosphorus, calcium levels
  10. How does vitamin D regulate calcium phosphate level
    • increase intestinal absorption
    • bone resorption
    • retention by kidneys
  11. Rickets
    Vitamin D deficiency seen as bone malformation, stunted growth
  12. Sources of Vitamin D
    • Fish liver oil highest
    • Butter, cream, egg yolk
  13. B5
    Pantothenic Acid
  14. Plays important roles in metabolism part of CoA
    Pantothenic Acid (B5)
  15. What does pantothenic acid transported into the tissues
    sodium dependent active transport
  16. function of pantothenic acid
    important role in metabolism of CaA
  17. B6
  18. Three biologically active forms of pyridoxine (B6)
    • PN: Pyridoxine
    • PL: Aldehyde pyridoxal
    • PM: Amine Pyridoxal
  19. Metabolically active form of pyridoxine (B6)
    PLP: Pyridoxal phosphate
  20. what is needed for PN and PM to be converted to PLP
  21. What is the function of pyridoxine (B6)
    • Metabolism of amino acids, neurotransmitters, glycogen
    • needed for tryptophan-->niacin
  22. main form of pyridoxine found in the blood
  23. Pteroylmonoglutamic acid
    Folic Acid
  24. What form of folic acid is absorbed by the intestines
  25. How is folic acid stored in the liver
    • polyglutamate
    • 10-formylFH4
    • 5-formylFH4
  26. What is the function of tetrahydrofolic acid
    carrier of single carbon moieties
  27. Function of folic acid
    • cosubstrate in DNA repair
    • RBC and WBC formation
  28. what is needed for folate to properly form RBC
    Cobalamine B12
  29. What causes the methyl folate trap of folate
    B12 deficiency
  30. What can Folic acid deficiency cause
    • Impaired DNA and RNA synthesis (decreased cell division)
    • Lead to increased homocystine (cardiac problems)
  31. cobalamine
  32. What are the most active froms of Cobalamine B12 found in foods
    • cyanocobalamine
    • hydroxycobalamine
  33. what is the main cause of B12 deficiency
    Intrinsic factor defect
  34. What is needed for cobalamine to be metabolically active
    • 5-deoxyadenosly cobalamine
    • methyl group attached
  35. red beef tongue
    neurologic defects
    jaundice due to erythropoiesis
    Cobalamine deficiency
  36. what is the function of cobalamine (B12)
    • metabolism of amino acids (build protein, RBC, Healthy nerves)
    • Essential for normal cell metabolism especially in GI tract, bone marrow, nervous tissue
  37. what vitamin is needed for pyruvate carboxylase in fatty acid synthesis
  38. what enzyme are humans missing that synthesizes ascorbic acid glucose and galactose
    1-gulonolactone oxidase
  39. what is the most absorbent form of ascorbic acid
    dehydroascorbic acid
  40. Function of ascorbic acid
    • redox reactions
    • collagen and carnitine synthesis
    • Acts as antioxidant
    • mucus membrane integrity
  41. Mueller-Barlow diseas
    Ascorbic Acid
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Nutrition Final
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