Card Set Information
Brief description of production of speech
Communicative intent translates into verbal symbols that corresponds with rules of language (words + word order). Involves thought, feeling, and emotion.
Motor Speech Processes
Name the two processes:
Describe the two processes:
Motor Speech programming
: planning and organizing verbal message for motor execution
: speech motor program is executed by innervating/activating the respiratory, phonatory, resonator, and articulatory muscles
There are ___ muscles invoked in speaking, and _____ neuromuscular events per second.
What are the two cortical components? Describe.
What structures are in these areas?
: receives info from many sensory modalities, uses this info to organize and guide speech production. Damage would inflict incoordination of the jaw, tongue, and lips
Supplementary motor area
: involved in the initiation of speech and the control of rhythm, phonation, and articulation. it receives/sends
info (including info to the basal ganglia and cerebellum)
: supramarginal gyrus, somatosensory cortex
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Control Circuits
Cortical components: BG/Cerebellum: UMN
What does the BG control circuit do?
What does the cerebellar control circuit do?
Regulates automatic actives, it is important in inhibition and disinhibition
Coordinates the execution of smooth, coordinated muscle movements, important in programming and regulating speech movements
Name and describe the 3:
: proprioceptive feedback about muscle activity
Reflexes and Automaticity
: Noncortical, reflex-like pathways are involved in programming and executing speech movements
Limbic system and Right hemisphere
: contributes to programs that produce emotional meanings conveyed in speech
Upper Motor Neurons
Damage results in 4:
UMN goes from ___________ to to LMN (cranial nerves) and to the __________ tract for speech production
Loss or reduction of voluntary movements, spasticity, hyperreflexia, abnormal reflexes
primary motor cortex
Lower Motor Neurons
These go on to innervate _____, and they are known as ______. Damage results in 5:
the final common pathway
decreased muscle tone
decreased stretch reflexes
Dysarthrias and Apraxias
Give localization and neuromotor basis for the following:
LMN, Weakness, breath, articulation difficulty
Bilateral UMN, Spasticity, articulation difficulty, harsh quality, low pitch
Cerebellar control circuit, incoordination, irregular, jerky, uncoordinated speech, sound "drunk"
Basal ganglia control circuit (substantia nigra), rigidity/reduced range of movements, rushes of weak speech
Basal ganglia control circuit (striatum), involuntary movement, rate, pitch, loudness, stoppages
More than one, more than one
premotor area, supplementary motor area, insular cortex, motor programming, sequencing and selecting, there are inconsistent speech errors.