Speech Production

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  1. Cognitive-Linguistic Processes
    Communicative intent translates into verbal symbols that corresponds with rules of language  (words + word order). Involves thought, feeling, and emotion.
  2. Motor Speech Processes
    Name the two processes:
    Describe the two processes:
    • Motor Speech programming: planning and organizing verbal message for motor execution
    • Neuromuscular execution: speech motor program is executed by innervating/activating the respiratory, phonatory, resonator, and articulatory muscles
  3. Cortical Components
    There are ___ muscles invoked in speaking, and _____ neuromuscular events per second. 
    What are the two cortical components? Describe.
    What structures are in these areas?
    • 100
    • 140,000
    • Premotor area: receives info from many sensory modalities, uses this info to organize and guide speech production. Damage would inflict incoordination of the jaw, tongue, and lips
    • Supplementary motor area: involved in the initiation of speech and the control of rhythm, phonation, and articulation. it receives/sends
    • info (including info to the basal ganglia and cerebellum)
    • Premotor: Broca's
    • Supplementary: supramarginal gyrus, somatosensory cortex
  4. Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Control Circuits
    Cortical components: BG/Cerebellum: UMN
    What does the BG control circuit do?
    What does the cerebellar control circuit do?
    • Regulates automatic actives, it is important in inhibition and disinhibition 
    • Coordinates the execution of smooth, coordinated muscle movements, important in programming and regulating speech movements
  5. Other Influences
    Name and describe the 3:
    • Sensation: proprioceptive feedback about muscle activity
    • Reflexes and Automaticity: Noncortical, reflex-like pathways are involved in programming and executing speech movements
    • Limbic system and Right hemisphere: contributes to programs that produce emotional meanings conveyed in speech
  6. Upper Motor Neurons
    Damage results in 4:
    UMN goes from ___________ to to LMN (cranial nerves) and to the __________ tract for speech production
    • Loss or reduction of voluntary movements, spasticity, hyperreflexia, abnormal reflexes
    • primary motor cortex
    • corticobulbar
  7. Lower Motor Neurons
    These go on to innervate _____, and they are known as ______. Damage results in 5:
    • muscles
    • the final common pathway
    • weakness/paralysis
    • atrophy
    • decreased muscle tone
    • decreased stretch reflexes
    • fasciculations
  8. Dysarthrias and Apraxias
    Give localization and neuromotor basis for the following: 
    • LMN, Weakness, breath, articulation difficulty
    • Bilateral UMN, Spasticity, articulation difficulty, harsh quality, low pitch
    • Cerebellar control circuit, incoordination, irregular, jerky, uncoordinated speech, sound "drunk"
    • Basal ganglia control circuit (substantia nigra), rigidity/reduced range of movements, rushes of weak speech
    • Basal ganglia control circuit (striatum), involuntary movement, rate, pitch, loudness, stoppages 
    • More than one, more than one
    • premotor area, supplementary motor area, insular cortex, motor programming, sequencing and selecting, there are inconsistent speech errors.
Card Set
Speech Production
Brief description of production of speech
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