Speech Production

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  1. Cognitive-Linguistic Processes
    Describe.
    Communicative intent translates into verbal symbols that corresponds with rules of language  (words + word order). Involves thought, feeling, and emotion.
  2. Motor Speech Processes
    Name the two processes:
    Describe the two processes:
    • Motor Speech programming: planning and organizing verbal message for motor execution
    • Neuromuscular execution: speech motor program is executed by innervating/activating the respiratory, phonatory, resonator, and articulatory muscles
  3. Cortical Components
    There are ___ muscles invoked in speaking, and _____ neuromuscular events per second. 
    What are the two cortical components? Describe.
    What structures are in these areas?
    • 100
    • 140,000
    • Premotor area: receives info from many sensory modalities, uses this info to organize and guide speech production. Damage would inflict incoordination of the jaw, tongue, and lips
    • Supplementary motor area: involved in the initiation of speech and the control of rhythm, phonation, and articulation. it receives/sends
    • info (including info to the basal ganglia and cerebellum)
    • Premotor: Broca's
    • Supplementary: supramarginal gyrus, somatosensory cortex
  4. Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Control Circuits
    Cortical components: BG/Cerebellum: UMN
    What does the BG control circuit do?
    What does the cerebellar control circuit do?
    • Regulates automatic actives, it is important in inhibition and disinhibition 
    • Coordinates the execution of smooth, coordinated muscle movements, important in programming and regulating speech movements
  5. Other Influences
    Name and describe the 3:
    • Sensation: proprioceptive feedback about muscle activity
    • Reflexes and Automaticity: Noncortical, reflex-like pathways are involved in programming and executing speech movements
    • Limbic system and Right hemisphere: contributes to programs that produce emotional meanings conveyed in speech
  6. Upper Motor Neurons
    Damage results in 4:
    UMN goes from ___________ to to LMN (cranial nerves) and to the __________ tract for speech production
    • Loss or reduction of voluntary movements, spasticity, hyperreflexia, abnormal reflexes
    • primary motor cortex
    • corticobulbar
  7. Lower Motor Neurons
    These go on to innervate _____, and they are known as ______. Damage results in 5:
    • muscles
    • the final common pathway
    • weakness/paralysis
    • atrophy
    • decreased muscle tone
    • decreased stretch reflexes
    • fasciculations
  8. Dysarthrias and Apraxias
    Give localization and neuromotor basis for the following: 
    Flaccid
    Spastic
    Ataxic
    Hypokinetic
    Hyperkinetic
    Mixed
    Apraxia
    • LMN, Weakness, breath, articulation difficulty
    • Bilateral UMN, Spasticity, articulation difficulty, harsh quality, low pitch
    • Cerebellar control circuit, incoordination, irregular, jerky, uncoordinated speech, sound "drunk"
    • Basal ganglia control circuit (substantia nigra), rigidity/reduced range of movements, rushes of weak speech
    • Basal ganglia control circuit (striatum), involuntary movement, rate, pitch, loudness, stoppages 
    • More than one, more than one
    • premotor area, supplementary motor area, insular cortex, motor programming, sequencing and selecting, there are inconsistent speech errors.
Author
ID
252205
Card Set
Speech Production
Description
Brief description of production of speech
Updated
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