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Communicative intent translates into verbal symbols that corresponds with rules of language (words + word order). Involves thought, feeling, and emotion.
Motor Speech Processes
Name the two processes:
Describe the two processes:
- Motor Speech programming: planning and organizing verbal message for motor execution
- Neuromuscular execution: speech motor program is executed by innervating/activating the respiratory, phonatory, resonator, and articulatory muscles
There are ___ muscles invoked in speaking, and _____ neuromuscular events per second.
What are the two cortical components? Describe.
What structures are in these areas?
- Premotor area: receives info from many sensory modalities, uses this info to organize and guide speech production. Damage would inflict incoordination of the jaw, tongue, and lips
- Supplementary motor area: involved in the initiation of speech and the control of rhythm, phonation, and articulation. it receives/sends
- info (including info to the basal ganglia and cerebellum)
- Premotor: Broca's
- Supplementary: supramarginal gyrus, somatosensory cortex
Basal Ganglia and Cerebellar Control Circuits
Cortical components: BG/Cerebellum: UMN
What does the BG control circuit do?
What does the cerebellar control circuit do?
- Regulates automatic actives, it is important in inhibition and disinhibition
- Coordinates the execution of smooth, coordinated muscle movements, important in programming and regulating speech movements
Name and describe the 3:
- Sensation: proprioceptive feedback about muscle activity
- Reflexes and Automaticity: Noncortical, reflex-like pathways are involved in programming and executing speech movements
- Limbic system and Right hemisphere: contributes to programs that produce emotional meanings conveyed in speech
Upper Motor Neurons
Damage results in 4:
UMN goes from ___________ to to LMN (cranial nerves) and to the __________ tract for speech production
- Loss or reduction of voluntary movements, spasticity, hyperreflexia, abnormal reflexes
- primary motor cortex
Lower Motor Neurons
These go on to innervate _____, and they are known as ______. Damage results in 5:
- the final common pathway
- decreased muscle tone
- decreased stretch reflexes
Dysarthrias and Apraxias
Give localization and neuromotor basis for the following:
- LMN, Weakness, breath, articulation difficulty
- Bilateral UMN, Spasticity, articulation difficulty, harsh quality, low pitch
- Cerebellar control circuit, incoordination, irregular, jerky, uncoordinated speech, sound "drunk"
- Basal ganglia control circuit (substantia nigra), rigidity/reduced range of movements, rushes of weak speech
- Basal ganglia control circuit (striatum), involuntary movement, rate, pitch, loudness, stoppages
- More than one, more than one
- premotor area, supplementary motor area, insular cortex, motor programming, sequencing and selecting, there are inconsistent speech errors.