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Main points regarding Trait theory.
- -Assumes that certain traits/characteristics are what make leaders
- -Verified through further research
- -(eg. IQ, Socio-economic status, confidence, etc.)
Main points regarding Situational theory.
- -What works in one context may not work in another.
- -Brought trait theory into question
What are the Big Five?
(five most common traits)
Describe Authoritarian/Autocratic style leadership.
- -Makes autonomous/unilateral decisions
- -Delegates tasks/deadlines
- -Demands strict compliance
- -Gives praise, criticism, or consequences
- -Good in times of crisis if leader is an expert
- -Micromanagers could lose commitment/productivity from employees
- -Task: High
- -Relation: Low
Main points of Democratic style leadership.
- -Collective decision making (leader has final say)
- -Less unilateral/more cooperative communication
- -Wants to get input from everybody
- -Notices communication style
- -Task: High
- -Relation: High
Main points to Laissez-Faire style leadership.
- -Free reign given to team for decisions
- -Less involvement, feedback, directions given
- -Perceived as: aloof, uninvolved, indifferent
- -Good with teams of high motivation/ability
- -Task: Low
- -Relation: Low
Main points of Human Relations style leadership.
- -Keep the harmony
- -Not task focused
- -Could be taken advantage of
- -Task: Low
- -Relation: High
What are the contemporary models of leadership?
- -Bass (1981) made the distinction between the two
What is transactional leadership?
- -Based on exchanges
- -You follow along and I'll reward or punish you
What is transformational style of leadership?
- -Involves inspiring followers to commit to shared vision that provides meaning to their work.
- -Helps followers develop potential
- -Trains followers to become leaders
- -Often charismatic (careful for dark side)
- -When augmented with transactional it is more effective
What are the four dimensions of transformational leadership?
- -Idealized Influence
- =behaving in ways that earn admiration, trust..
- -Inspirational Motivation
- =foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to..
- -Intellectual Stimulation
- =challenge followers to be innovative/creative…
- -Individualized Considerations
- =help followers achieve potential through mentoring...
What effect does transformational leadership have on job perf. and org. commitment?
- -Moderate positive effect on performance
- -Strong positive effect on commitment
Define "Group think"
-When group lacks expertise they can be lead to make bad decisions by someone who doesn't know what they're talking about.
What is leadership range?
-Ability to utilize different leadership styles based on task, team, or structure of org.
What are the three basic processes of memory?
- =receiving, processing, combining information
- =creation of permanent record of the encoded
- =calling back the stored info
What are three basic components to memory?
- =occurs within senses, briefly stored
- -Short Term
- =our conscious thoughts/working memory=holds about 7 items for up to 30 secs=capacity can increased by chunking and duration can be increased by maintenance rehearsal
- -Long Term
- =more permanent with unlimited capacity
- =transfer from STM to LTM involves hippocampus
Name the two systems the LTM is divided into.
- =memory with conscious recall
- =memory without conscious recall
What is the explicit/declarative memory made up of?
- -Semantic memory
- =facts (knowing your birthday)
- -Episodic memory
- =personal experiences (first kiss)
What three parts is the implicit/nondeclarative memory made up of?
- -Procerdural memory=motor skills (driving a car)
- -Classically Conditioned memory=conditioned responses (conditd. phobias)
- -Priming=earlier exposure facilitates retrieval
What are the five theories of why we forget?
- -Decay Theory
- =memory deteriorates over time
- -Interference Theory
- =forgetting occurs when there is competing info
- -Motivated Forgetting Theory
- =forgetting due to unpleasant, painful, etc.
- -Encoding Failure Theory
- =info never transfers from STM to LTM
Encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories can be affected if any of these six parts of the brain are damaged.
- -Basal Ganglia
What are the three biological components of emotion?
- -Physiological Responses
- -Overt Behaviors
- -Conscious Feelings
What are emotions?
- -Involve biological, behavioral, cognitive, and social factors
- -Can be interpreted differently from culture to culture
What is phenomenology?
-Study of subjective experiences
What part of the brain processes emotions?
- -Frontal Lobe
What happens in the brain when someone overreacts?
-The thalamus is reacting faster than the neocortex
Overall, what three things does the amygdala play a role in coordinating?
Physiological components of emotion are mediated primarily by what?
- -Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
- =both sympathetic and parasympathetic
- -Activation of sympathetic part produces fight or flight response
What are the three major theories of reaction?
- =gunshot > jump > reaction is fear
- =gunshot > body response/fear at same time
- -Two-Factor (AVERA'S CHOICE)
- =gunshot > body response/think about it > reaction
Emotional events can lead to particularly vivid episodic memories called what?
Flashbulb memories suggest that emotion can greatly increase this?
Studies show that memories for emotional events decay overtime and are prone to these.
Emotionally charged events are more likely to be?
Negative emotions and high stress can cause...
-Physical and psychological problems
What is PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)?
- -Prolonged maladaptive response to the exposure to a traumatic event.
- -Shows in behavior through flashbacks, aggression, difficulty concentrating, etc.
What is social learning?
-When learner actively monitors events involving others and then chooses later actions based on their observations.
Main points about Albert Bandura...
- -Famous professor at Stanford
- -We learn through observation
- -Presence of model increases attention to situation
- -Encoding of models actions
- -Action reproduction:must be able to repeat
- -Motivation: must have a reason to select observed behavior
- -Bandura and Bobo the clown
Main idea we learned about Piaget?
- =seeing the world only from your point of view
What are post formal operations?
-Ability to see from multiple perspectives
In what two ways did Bandura's results challenge Behaviorist approaches in at least two ways?
- -Strong learning in the absence of any specific REINFORCEMENT (self motivated learning)
- -Apparent need for complex cognitive processing (no simple stimulus/response terms)
What is true imitation?
-Copying specific actions learned from another
What did the behaviorists point out about what true imitation could've actually been?
- -The Behaviorists' simple forms of learning:
- =accomplish goal, but in different way
- =inborn tendency to react to cues from others
- -Stimulus Enhancement
- =teacher directs attention to something by pointing...
What are the four cheap knock-off ways of learning that seem like true imitation, but are compatible with Behaviorism?
- -Stimulus Enhancement
Does true imitation really occur? If so, in what species?
-Yes, in humans, some primates, and dolphins
What is social referencing?
-Looking to others to understand how to respond in certain situations
What is perspective taking?
-Our ability to perceive others thoughts, feelings, actions, and motivations
What is a social transmission of information?
- -Process in which an observer learns something involving other agents
- -Someone loses money in soda machine, you don't use that machine
- -Can lead to social conformity
- -An adaptive function
Describe our Post Modernistic society...
- -Tech revolution
- -Fiberoptics, tv, cell phones, planes, immigration.
- -Excessive world views
- -The consumer identity
Social learning and transmission inform our use of media in three ways...
- -Violent movies/video games
- -Sexualized behavior in media
- -Images of health/beauty
What does FMRI stand for?
Important points about mirror neurons...
- -Humans have them
- -EEG and fMRI indicate that some brain regions are activated for both observing and performing actions