Avera's Final

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  1. Main points regarding Trait theory.
    • -Assumes that certain traits/characteristics are what make leaders
    • -Verified through further research
    • -(eg. IQ, Socio-economic status, confidence, etc.)
  2. Main points regarding Situational theory.
    • -What works in one context may not work in another.
    • -Brought trait theory into question
  3. What are the Big Five?
    (five most common traits)
    • -Openness
    • -Conscientiousness
    • -Extraversion
    • -Agreeableness
    • -Neuroticism
  4. Describe Authoritarian/Autocratic style leadership.
    • -Makes autonomous/unilateral decisions
    • -Delegates tasks/deadlines
    • -Demands strict compliance
    • -Gives praise, criticism, or consequences
    • -Good in times of crisis if leader is an expert
    • -Micromanagers could lose commitment/productivity from employees
    • -Task: High
    • -Relation: Low
  5. Main points of Democratic style leadership.
    • -Collective decision making (leader has final say)
    • -Less unilateral/more cooperative communication
    • -Wants to get input from everybody
    • -Notices communication style
    • -Task: High
    • -Relation: High
  6. Main points to Laissez-Faire style leadership.
    • -Free reign given to team for decisions
    • -Less involvement, feedback, directions given
    • -Perceived as: aloof, uninvolved, indifferent
    • -Good with teams of high motivation/ability
    • -Task: Low
    • -Relation: Low
  7. Main points of Human Relations style leadership.
    • -Keep the harmony
    • -Not task focused
    • -Could be taken advantage of
    • -Task: Low 
    • -Relation: High
  8. What are the contemporary models of leadership?
    • -Transactional
    • -Transformational
    • -Bass (1981) made the distinction between the two
  9. What is transactional leadership?
    • -Based on exchanges
    • -You follow along and I'll reward or punish you
  10. What is transformational style of leadership?
    • -Involves inspiring followers to commit to shared vision that provides meaning to their work.
    • -Helps followers develop potential
    • -Trains followers to become leaders
    • -Often charismatic (careful for dark side)
    • -When augmented with transactional it is more effective
  11. What are the four dimensions of transformational leadership?
    • -Idealized Influence
    • =behaving in ways that earn admiration, trust..
    • -Inspirational Motivation
    • =foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to..
    • -Intellectual Stimulation
    • =challenge followers to be innovative/creative…
    • -Individualized Considerations
    • =help followers achieve potential through mentoring...
  12. What effect does transformational leadership have on job perf. and org. commitment?
    • -Moderate positive effect on performance
    • -Strong positive effect on commitment
  13. Define "Group think"
    -When group lacks expertise they can be lead to make bad decisions by someone who doesn't know what they're talking about.
  14. What is leadership range?
    -Ability to utilize different leadership styles based on task, team, or structure of org.
  15. What are the three basic processes of memory?
    • -Encoding
    • =receiving, processing, combining information
    • -Storage
    • =creation of permanent record of the encoded
    • -Retrieval
    • =calling back the stored info
  16. What are three basic components to memory?
    • -Sensory
    • =occurs within senses, briefly stored
    • -Short Term
    • =our conscious thoughts/working memory=holds about 7 items for up to 30 secs=capacity can increased by chunking and duration can be increased by maintenance rehearsal
    • -Long Term
    • =more permanent with unlimited capacity
    • =transfer from STM to LTM involves hippocampus
  17. Name the two systems the LTM is divided into.
    • -Explicit/Declarative
    • =memory with conscious recall
    • -Implicit/Nondeclarative
    • =memory without conscious recall
  18. What is the explicit/declarative memory made up of?
    • -Semantic memory
    • =facts (knowing your birthday)
    • -Episodic memory
    • =personal experiences (first kiss)
  19. What three parts is the implicit/nondeclarative memory made up of?
    • -Procerdural memory
    • =motor skills (driving a car)
    • -Classically Conditioned memory
    • =conditioned responses (conditd. phobias)
    • -Priming
    • =earlier exposure facilitates retrieval
  20. What are the five theories of why we forget?
    • -Decay Theory
    • =memory deteriorates over time
    • -Interference Theory
    • =forgetting occurs when there is competing info
    • -Motivated Forgetting Theory
    • =forgetting due to unpleasant, painful, etc.
    • -Encoding Failure Theory
    • =info never transfers from STM to LTM
  21. Encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories can be affected if any of these six parts of the brain are damaged.
    • -Amygdala
    • -Basal Ganglia
    • -Cerebellum
    • -Hippocampus
    • -Thalamus
    • -Neocortex
  22. What are the three biological components of emotion?
    • -Physiological Responses
    • -Overt Behaviors
    • -Conscious Feelings
  23. What are emotions?
    • -Multidimensional
    • -Involve biological, behavioral, cognitive, and social factors
    • -Can be interpreted differently from culture to culture
  24. What is phenomenology?
    -Study of subjective experiences
  25. What part of the brain processes emotions?
    • -Amygdala
    • -Hippocampus
    • -Frontal Lobe
  26. What happens in the brain when someone overreacts?
    -The thalamus is reacting faster than the neocortex
  27. Overall, what three things does the amygdala play a role in coordinating?
    • -Emotion
    • -Learning
    • -Memory
  28. Physiological components of emotion are mediated primarily by what?
    • -Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    • =both sympathetic and parasympathetic
    • -Activation of sympathetic part produces fight or flight response
  29. What are the three major theories of reaction?
    • -James/Lange
    • =gunshot > jump > reaction is fear
    • -Cannon/Bard
    • =gunshot > body response/fear at same time
    • -Two-Factor (AVERA'S CHOICE)
    • =gunshot > body response/think about it > reaction
  30. Emotional events can lead to particularly vivid episodic memories called what?
    -Flashbulb Memories
  31. Flashbulb memories suggest that emotion can greatly increase this?
    -Memory Encoding
  32. Studies show that memories for emotional events decay overtime and are prone to these.
    -Misattribution Errors
  33. Emotionally charged events are more likely to be?
  34. Negative emotions and high stress can cause...
    -Physical and psychological problems
  35. What is PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)?
    • -Prolonged maladaptive response to the exposure to a traumatic event.
    • -Shows in behavior through flashbacks, aggression, difficulty concentrating, etc.
  36. What is social learning?
    -When learner actively monitors events involving others and then chooses later actions based on their observations.
  37. Main points about Albert Bandura...
    • -Famous professor at Stanford
    • -We learn through observation
    • -Presence of model increases attention to situation
    • -Encoding of models actions
    • -Action reproduction:must be able to repeat
    • -Motivation: must have a reason to select observed behavior
    • -Bandura and Bobo the clown
  38. Main idea we learned about Piaget?
    • -Egocentrism
    • =seeing the world only from your point of view
  39. What are post formal operations?
    -Ability to see from multiple perspectives
  40. In what two ways did Bandura's results challenge Behaviorist approaches in at least two ways?
    • -Strong learning in the absence of any specific REINFORCEMENT (self motivated learning)
    • -Apparent need for complex cognitive processing (no simple stimulus/response terms)
  41. What is true imitation?
    -Copying specific actions learned from another
  42. What did the behaviorists point out about what true imitation could've actually been?
    • -The Behaviorists' simple forms of learning:
    • -Emulation
    • =accomplish goal, but in different way
    • -Contagion
    • =inborn tendency to react to cues from others
    • -Stimulus Enhancement
    • =teacher directs attention to something by pointing...
  43. What are the four cheap knock-off ways of learning that seem like true imitation, but are compatible with Behaviorism?
    • -Emulation
    • -Observational
    • -Contagion
    • -Stimulus Enhancement
  44. Does true imitation really occur? If so, in what species?
    -Yes, in humans, some primates, and dolphins
  45. What is social referencing?
    -Looking to others to understand how to respond in certain situations
  46. What is perspective taking?
    -Our ability to perceive others thoughts, feelings, actions, and motivations
  47. What is a social transmission of information?
    • -Process in which an observer learns something involving other agents
    • -Someone loses money in soda machine, you don't use that machine
    • -Can lead to social conformity
    • -An adaptive function
  48. Describe our Post Modernistic society...
    • -Tech revolution
    • -Fiberoptics, tv, cell phones, planes, immigration.
    • -Excessive world views 
    • -The consumer identity
  49. Social learning and transmission inform our use of media in three ways...
    • -Violent movies/video games
    • -Sexualized behavior in media
    • -Images of health/beauty
  50. What does FMRI stand for?
    • -Functional
    • -Magnetic
    • -Resonance
    • -Imaging
  51. Important points about mirror neurons...
    • -Humans have them
    • -EEG and fMRI indicate that some brain regions are activated for both observing and performing actions
Card Set:
Avera's Final
2013-12-10 07:02:45
10 11 Leadership

Covers Ch. 7, 10, 11, Styles of Leadership Topics
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