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- initially both boys & girls id w/ mom
- btwn 3-5 children id w same sex parent
- through this process children are sex typed but boys are done so more strongly
cognitive dev theory (kohlberg)
- children have agency & can question/challenge what they see and experience in gender
- (3 phases)-> gender constancy
- 1. gender id: age 3 child figures out his/her sex id(bio) ->gender role & beh.
- 2. gender stability:3-5 figures out gender & sex id but believes everyone stays where they r throughout life
- 3.gender constancy:age 6-7 gender id, gender stability, & no matter what I do or beh. it is stable
- 0-3 children mimic primary caregiver(mom)
- 2-3 children either id with gender of caregiver or disidentify from gender of caregiver
- depends on sex of child
- girls learn to be more nuturing & supportive
- boys learn to be more indep.
- boys have a slightly higher mortality a7 instances of autism, blood disorder in u.s
- hormonal diff even before puberty, even in utero. levels change at birth & thru dev.
- there is a larger nerve bundle btwn l&R brains for girls in u.s.
sociobiological theories of gender (evolutionary bio)
- diff sexes have a diff strateg. to reproduce in order to continue genetic line->behav. reflect these strateg.
- males: spread genetic materials as far & wide as possible, some will survive (can impreg. several women)
- females: nurture & protect the few progeny one can in a lifetime so they will survive(Limited # of preg)
- implicates gender roles & socialization
comm theory-symbolic interactionism(Mead)
- words, labels, & comm shape our id. and r sense of who we r in relat. to the world.
- "boys will be boys" "mr. mom" "women's work"
standpoint theory (harding)
we r shaped bu the social world historically, politically. socially, indiv. through our own experiences in interactions with others. Hierarchal dimensions.
Black fem theory(patricia hill collins)
people have multiple id in their standpoint. some of therse are contradictory insider/outsider status
- 1st wave(women's rights
- wollenscraft"A vindication of the rights of women, seneca falls convention fred douglas susan b anthony cult of domesticity
- 2nd wave after wwII enters college: social awareness rad fem(relationships), lib fem.(outside of home) SNCC
- 3rd wave betty friedan "feminine mystique
- pro men- mythopetic movement(robbed of masculinitu by women and capitalsim
- capitalism: pressure to provide removing from rela. w. sons
- activities mens camps
- Freeman's movement: feminist robbed men of masculinty ie promise keepers mens only fam values movement, stadium evemts
mens movement (profem) 1990s
- white ribbon campaign: canada male journ. responds to sexist coverage of mass shooting of women at nursing school.
- goal: edu men about their own prej against women in everyday life & lang
primary diff in masc. & fem. speech
- childs play: girls: comm is for adjusting closeness/distance in rel., face to face, negotiate roles/rules, status on abiluty to negotiate relationships
- boys:comm is only when necc, side by side, raise status of self lower status of others, status is based on phys. doing
- Debroah tannen
- support v statusintamacy v indep
- understanding v advicefeeling v infoproposal v ordercompromise v conflicts
saussure's conceptualization of the sign & semiotics
- the sign system a symbol of a tree v idea of a tree
- relationship btwn is totally arbutriary not a necessary meaning, as we learn & agree upon as society.
- guyland hypermasculinity
- appearance is paramount to their selfdefinition.
- body disatifaction
- low self esteem
gender & edu.
- higher edu: socio-bio destiny of women to bear children of too much edu =mascu., took sewing classes, embro, home ec literature, music as consumers
- hidden curriculum: nursing, social work etc
- teachers back up praise for boys w. ev while none for girls
- morill act: co-edu for agricultural innovation funding
- title IX equal access to edu but financial aid was reserved for men, low availability of sports schol. -lawsuit-> IX
COMMON couple violence
- intimate terrorism: pattern of power & control, 1 person uses violence persistantly escalating over time demand& withdraw
- situational couple vio: situation where a couple is unable to resolve a specific conflict , usually reciprical, does not escalte ie (verbal & emotional attacks, attacks on obj.) seeking control of issue not eachothet
- emotional flooding: increase in emotional feeling 1. sympathetic nerve repsons(heatrate , bloodpressure, sweating up) 2. decrease ability to process new info, reliance on sterotypes,
types of fam:
- pluralistic <conform >convo
- protective > conform <convo
- consensual >conform >convo
- lassiez faire <conform <convo