BIO 395: Final Exam

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BIO 395: Final Exam
2013-12-11 00:09:38

Final Exam
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  1. Perpetual Energy
    Energy from sources that are essentially inexhaustible
  2. Renewable Energy
    Energy that can be replaced by the environment as long as it is not used up faster than it can be replaced
  3. Non-Renewable Energy
    Exists in finite supply or is renewed by the environment so slowly hat the supply can be considered finite
  4. What were the 2 types of renewable alternative sources of energy? The advantages and disadvantages of each. Be able to give examples of each.
    • Biomass Energy - Energy harnessed from organic matter used as fuel (wood, animal waste, crops); Adv - Accessible and inexpensive, relatively clean, CO2 by burning plant matter can be offset by plants doing photosynthesis; Dis - Biomass supplies have been depleted, higher prices for food and food shortages
    • Fuel Cells - Electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity with water and heat as its by-product; Adv - Low to 0 harmful emissions, high efficiency, operate silently, heat can provide hot water or space heating for homes; Dis - Expensive, finding good sources of hydrogen, durability and service life
  5. What were the 2 types of non-renewable alternative sources of energy? The advantages and disadvantages of each. Be able to give examples of each.
    • Solid Waste - Materials that are discarded; Adv - Reduces the amour of material that must go to landfills, tapping methane produced in landfills; Dis - Emissions of mercury, lead, and other harmful substances are released with burning trash
    • Nuclear Energy - Power contained within the nucleus of an atom; Adv - Doesn't contribute to air pollution, helps reduce greenhouses gasses, and newer plants are safer. Dis - Expensive, safety issues, and large amounts of water used to cool
  6. What country has the most nuclear power plants? What country gets most of its energy from nuclear power?
    • Most Plants = United States - 104
    • Most Energy = France 78%
  7. Greenhouse Effect
    Solar radiation warms the Earth's surfaces and the gases in the atmosphere trap some of the heat. Natural processes raise Earth's temperature 50°F.
  8. Global Warming
    Can occur when too much heat is trapped in the atmosphere because of increased greenhouse gases. Excessive Greenhouse Effect called Global Warming.
  9. Climate Change
    The Earth is getting warmer. The average temperature rose about 1.1°F during the 20th century and continues to rise.
  10. Montreal Protocol
    1987 - Restricted use of ozone-depleting chemicals
  11. Clean Air Act
    • 1970, 1977, and 1990
    • Protects air quality through measures and programs to address six pollutants, air toxics, and acid precipitation.
  12. List the layers of the atmosphere and how the atmosphere helps to sustain life on Earth.
    • Troposphere - 7 miles above the Earth and contains the gases that support life
    • Stratosphere - Extends 7-31 miles above the Earth and the ozone gas is present prevents harmful amounts of UV radiation from the Sun from reaching the Earth's surface
    • Mesosphere - Extends from the stratosphere (31 miles) to 56 miles above Earth.
    • Thermosphere - Extends from the mesosphere (56 miles) to outer space
  13. List 8 pieces of evidence of climate change given in class. Why are humans partially responsible for it?
    • 2000s was the warmest on record for the globe
    • Ice on the edges of Greenland is melting faster than it is being replenished during the winter
    • Glaciers are melting on 6 continents
    • Bleaching of coral reefs
    • Hurricanes of 2005
    • Polar Bears - Threatened species
    • Arctic Sea ice minimum
    • Arctic gets greener as climate warms
    • Humans responsible - Add "new" CO2 by burring fossil fuels
  14. What has caused ozone depletion? What has been done internationally to deal with this problem?
    • Cause - Compounds called CFCs used as refrigerants and propellants in aerosol cans
    • Deal - 1987 Montreal Protocol
  15. What causes acid precipitation? What are some of the negative results of acid precipitation?
    • Any precipitation that has a pH of 5.6 or below
    • Causes - Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, mostly from burning fossil fuels
    • Negative - Die-off of large tracts, decline and disappearance of fish, and deterioration of centuries old buildings
  16. What is indoor air pollution? Examples given in class. What are some of the causes of this pollution?
    • Pollution that comes from products inside buildings
    • Examples - Products to prevent bacteria and fungi, radioactive gas that seeps into basements, insulation, and vinyl floors
    • Causes - Formaldehyde, radon, and asbestos
  17. Salt Water
    • Oceans
    • Salt concentration is consistent at about 35 parts per thousand
  18. Freshwater
    • Lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater, polar ice caps, and glaciers
    • Salt concentration is less that 0.5 parts per thousand
  19. Surface Water
    Lakes and rivers that are recharged by precipitation
  20. Runoff
    Precipitation flowing from higher to lower elevations
  21. Watershed
    Entire runoff area that flows into a body of water
  22. Groundwater
    Freshwater found underground in porous rock strata
  23. Aquifer
    Water-bearing geologic formation that holds water underground
  24. Water Table
    The depth at which the aquifer begins (top of aquifer)
  25. Great Miami Buried Valley Aquifer
    • Formed bc of 3 waves of glaciations during the Pleistocene Epoch 2 million -10,000 years ago
    • Water table is less than 20 feet below surface
    • Aquifer ranges from 30-300 feet deep and 1-3 miles wide
    • Great Miami recharges the aquifer during high flow periods, Nov-April
  26. Plant Nutrients
    Algae and aquatic plant growth are normally limited by the amount of phosphorus and nitrogen. Excess amounts can cause hypoxia.
  27. Hypoxia
    Deficiency in the amount of oxygen
  28. Safe Drinking Water Act
    1974 - Set national drinking water standards, called for maximum contaminant levels for pollutants that might adversely affect human health
  29. Clean Water Act
    1972 - Industries have to treat toxic wastes before releasing them into water and municipal wastes have to have wastewater treatment
  30. Great Lakes Compact
    2008 - Largest system of fresh surface water on the Earth. Holds 20% of the world's and 90% of North America's fresh surface water
  31. How do we use water globally (worldwide)?
    • 70% - Agriculture
    • 22% - Industry
    • 8% - Households
  32. 6 General Categories of Water Pollution
    • Organic Wastes
    • Disease-Causing Wastes
    • Plant Nutrients
    • Sediments
    • Toxic Substances
    • Persistent Substances
  33. What are the shale gas deposits (2) in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia called?
    Marcellus and Utica
  34. What was the major technological advance that makes shale drilling possible?
    Horizontal Drilling
  35. How much CO2 does natural shale base emit compared to coal?
    Emits quarter of the carbon dioxide
  36. Why might shale gas production contribute more to climate change than coal production?
    Gas leaks (methane) during tracking and building of wells
  37. Energy Sprawl
    Production of total quantity of energy produced annually and the land-use intensity of production
  38. What are some of the negative concerns of wind power?
    • Would need to cover area the size of West Virginia
    • Turbines kill 1.4 million birds
    • Loud low frequency noise produced
  39. Currently how much land is needed to produce 1 million megawatt hours a year for nuclear? Wind power? Photovoltaic power?
    • Nuclear - 1 square mile
    • Wind - 28 square miles
    • PV - 14 square miles
  40. Where do the greatest untapped wind resources lie?
  41. What is the most rapidly growing energy industry worldwide?
    Wind power
  42. Biofuels
    Liquid fuels derived from renewable sources
  43. On what type of fuel did Henry Ford plan to run his Model T?
  44. Of the following, which is most desirable because it produces the most biofuel per acre - corn, soybeans, or algae? How many more times? How many gallons per acre per year? How much can its biomass multiply daily?
    • Algae
    • 60 more times
    • 5,000 gallons of biodisel with 1 acre per year
    • Quadruple
  45. What were the 4 problems associated with using agricultural waste for biofuels?
    • Reliability of supply is uncertain.
    • It is expensive.
    • The agricultural waste market is a spot market with short-term pricing.
    • Logistics are not suitable for conversion.
  46. What percentage of the corn grown in the US is designated for production of ethanol to be added to gasoline?
  47. What percentage of US oil consumption would be replaced if all the corn grown was used to make ethanol?
  48. Nuclear Fission
    Energy released when the nucleus of atoms are split when impacted by a free neutron
  49. How much electricity is generated in the US from nuclear power plants?
  50. How many nuclear power plants are there in the US? How many reactors? How many nuclear power plants worldwide?
    • US - 65
    • Reactors - 104
    • Worldwide - 437
  51. How are the concrete walls protecting the reactor core in nuclear power plants?
    To keep the reactive elements contained
  52. Referring to nuclear waste, what are open and closed containers?
    • Open - High-level waste directly disposed of in a repository (US, Sweden, Finland, Canada)
    • Closed - Nuclear fuel is reprocessed, the plutonium and uranium extracted and the remaining waste turned into glass logs to be sent to a repository (France, UK, Japan, Russia, India)
  53. What are the major safety concerns associated with nuclear energy?
    • Human error
    • Climate change (heat waves can shut down nuclear reactors)
    • Natural disasters (earthquakes)
  54. Greenwashing
    Term for ads and labels that promise more environmental benefits than they deliver
  55. When was the recycling logo invented?
  56. What are 3 examples of "going green" at UD?
    • Composting 
    • GE Aviation lab will be the first LEED building on campus
    • 4 new houses are considered green
  57. How many tons of waste was diverted from landfills in 2011-2012 by compositing at KU?
    200 tons of waste
  58. What were 3 reasons why companies greenwash?
    • Growing demand for "green" products
    • Governmental pressures
    • Companies most likely greenwash are typically the dirtiest