FINAL EXAM

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Author:
taliaaaaa
ID:
252236
Filename:
FINAL EXAM
Updated:
2013-12-10 00:50:51
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CRIMINALISTICS
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CRJ 201
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  1. Which fingerprint classification system is used in English speaking countries?
    AFIS: Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
  2. What is the average ridge characteristics on an average fingerprint?
    150
  3. AFIS looks for which two ridge characteristics?
    Ridge endings & Bifurcations
  4. What is the minimum number of ridge characteristics needed to I.D. a print?
    TWO
  5. What is Latent, Plastic, Visible Prints?
    • Latent: A fingerprint made by the deposits of oils and/or perspiration; it is invisible to the naked eye.
    • Plastic: A fingerprint impressed in a soft surface.
    • Visible: made when fingers touch a surface after the ridges have been in contact with a colored material such as blood, paint, grease, or ink.
  6. What is whorls, arches, & loops?
    • Whorls: A class of a fingerprint that includes ridge patterns that are generally rounded or circular in shape & have 2 deltas.
    • Arches (LEAST COMMON):A class of fingerprints characterized by ridge lines that enter the print from one side and flow out the other side.
    • Loop (MOST COMMON): have one or more ridges entering from one side of the print, recurving, and exiting from the same side.
  7. In which order do we use ninhydrin, iodine fuming, and physical developer.
    Iodine fuming, ninhydrin, physical developer.
  8. Why are there grooves in rifle barrels?
    The grooves serve to guide a fired bullet through the barrel, imparting a rapid spin to insure accuracy.
  9. What makes the distinctive markings on shells and cartridges?
    (Metal by metal contact) breechblock, extractor, and ejector.
  10. What do we use to detect gun powder residue?
    Greiss test
  11. What do we do immediately after locating an under-water gun?
    Transport it to the lab in a receptable container with enough of the same water it was found in.
  12. What on a recovered bullet do we want to protect for the lab?
    the investigators initials
  13. How do we preserve shoe or tire marks in soft earth?
    photography and casting
  14. What thing could be questioned documents?
    Any object with handwriting or print whose source or authenticity is in doubt
  15. What changes the writing characteristics of an individual?
    angularity, slope, speed, pressure, letter and word spacing, relative dimensions of letters, connections, pen movement, writing skill, and finger dexterity.
  16. What is the constitutionally of obtaining handwriting exemplars?
    Styles and habits may be altered
  17. What are the class characteristics of fax machines, printers and copiers?
    Digital Technology
  18. In reference to documents why use infrared luminescence?
    A property exhibited by some dyes that emits infrared lights when exposed to blue-green lights.
  19. What does the motherboard do?
    The main circuit board contained within a computer
  20. What is a bit?
    1
  21. In a P.C. what is the primary storage device?
    HDD: Hard Disk Drive
  22. What is true about a file that is deleted by a user?
    another source of latent data to be examined during forensic analysis.
  23. What is the goal of obtaining a hard disk drive?
    To get saved info
  24. What are hardware devices?
    case, keyboard, monitor, RAM, HDD, mouse, CPU
  25. Give examples of broadband internet connections.
    DSL, Cable modem, Wireless
  26. What is a domain name server?
    A name server is a computer server that hosts a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service.
  27. What is a URL?
    uniform resource locator (web address)
  28. Define crashing, spamming, & hacking
    • Crashing:Computing the failure of a disk storage system 
    • Spamming: irrelevant or inappropriate messages sent on the Internet to a large number of recipients.
    • Hacking: an unauthorized computer or network intrusion.
  29. What do most people use internet for?
    Chat & IM
  30. What is a directory cataloging the content of the Internet called?
    Internet caches
  31. What test is used to determine human or animal blood?
    Precipitin Test
  32. Blood dropping on hard surfaces v soft surface?
    Hard surface creates a splatter.
  33. What has more acid phosphates; seminal fluid or blood?
    Seminal fluid
  34. What evidence do we look for in a rape case?
    Seminal constituents
  35. Which is the most reliable instrument for detecting flammable residues?
    GC
  36. What are the building blocks of the DNA molecule?
    Nucleotides
  37. What determines the specific proteins produced by a cell?
    Amino acids
  38. What determines the individuality of an organism?
    DNA typing
  39. What does PCR do?
    Duplicate DNA
  40. What do restriction enzymes do?
    Cut out repeats of DNA double helix
  41. What is Tandem Repeats?
    The latest method of DNA typing, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, has emerged as the most successful and widely used DNA profiling procedure.
  42. What happens to DNA during gel electrophoresis?
    The separation  of the DNA molecules have been cut up by a restriction
  43. What are radioactive probes used for?
    To visualize the RFLPs
  44. How are Y-STRmarkers useful in sexual assaults?
    Y-STRs will prove useful when multiple males are involved in a sexual assault.
  45. Using low copy number DNA protocol, what is the fewest number of cells do be used?
    9
  46. What year was the internet developed?
    1960
  47. What is hypertext and its uses?
    HTML & stores bookmarks on firefox
  48. What do we look for on a suspect's P.C.?
    The information we have a warrant for.
  49. A Network Interface Card (NIC) is used to do what?
    Enabling networks & support the countless networking preferences maintained by computer users
  50. The most common place to start looking for evidence on a computer is?
    Motherboard
  51. Define Latent data:
    data which the operating system is not aware of.
  52. From where do we recover evidentiary data?
    RAM & file slack
  53. How would he represent one gigabyte in numerals?
    M
  54. What do we call a software algorithm used to create a file or HDD?
    Message Digest 5 (MD5), Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
  55. Define cluster:
    are groups of sectors and their size is defined by the operating system.
  56. What happens to a person's handwriting characteristics under the influence of drugs?
    the writing style of one individual may be altered beyond recognition by the influence of drugs or alcohol.
  57. A data bank of ink dye patterns was developed using what scientific method?
    Infrared Luminescence
  58. Define IBIS:
    Integrated Ballistic Identification System

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