Psych 250 Exam 4

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  1. Middle Adulthood
    • 40/45-60/65 age range
    • Penultimate balance: declining physical skills and increasing responsibility
  2. Temporal trajectory of marriage satisfaction
    The most common pathway of martial happiness in the West, in which satisfaction is highest at the honeymoon, declines during the child-rearing years, then rises after the children grow up
  3. Sternberg's triangle
    • Categorization of love relationships into three facets: passion, intimacy, and commitment. When arranged at the points of a triangle, their combinations describe all the different kinds of adult love relationships.
    • Passion + Intimacy = romantic love
    • Intimacy + Commitment = companionate marriage 
    • Passion + Commitment = purely sexual marriages
    • All three = consummate love
  4. Changes in modern fertility rates
    Fertility rates (the average number of children a woman in a given country has during her lifetime) have declined recently as more contraception is available and more people are choosing NOT to have families
  5. Transition to parenthood
    • Parenthood makes couples less intimate and happy
    • It produces more traditional (and potentially conflict-ridden) marital roles
  6. Marriage satisfaction
    A lack of marital equity (fairness in the "work" of a couple's life together) causes dissatisfaction. Both parents need to 'pull their own weight' in order to ensure the other's satisfaction with the marriage
  7. Motherhood
    • Mothers found that when confronted with real children, their ideals of being patient, loving caregivers fell apart as they realized how hard it is to maintain your temper when a child is being obnoxious
    • Children who are temperamentaly difficult provoke more irritation and lower maternal self-esteem
    • Easy children evoke loving feelings and make their mother feel competent in her role
    • Many mothers admit they do have favorite children, despite the ideal that they should love all their children equally  - typically a 'favorite' child has an easier temperament and is more satisfactorily attached to he mother
    • Despite more women working, mothers today spend more time with their children than mothers a generation ago
  8. Fatherhood
    • When women began to enter the workforce in the 1970's, men gained another role aside from being the 'breadwinner' and participated in child rearing more than before
    • Fathers, on average, spend more time with their sons than their daughters
    • Fathers play with their children in classically "male" rough and tumble ways
    • 21st century child care is still primarily a female job - on average Western women do roughly twice as much hands-on child care as men
    • Mothers more often take the bottom-line responsibility (scheduling doctors appointments, packing lunch, etc)
    • Today's fathers are doing far more hands-on child care than before, but the involvement is still skewed toward play activities
  9. Deinstitutionalization of marriage
    The decline in marriage and the emergence of alternate family forms that occurred during the last third of the twentieth century
  10. Menopause
    The age-related process, occurring at about age 50, in which ovulation and menstruation stop due to the declining of estrogen
  11. Big Five Personality Traits
    • Openness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
  12. Openness
    Refers to our passion to seek out new experiences (enjoy new changes or don't like change?)
  13. Conscientiousness
    Worker personality (hardworker and reliable or unreliable?)
  14. Extraversion
    Describes outgoing attitudes like warmth, gregariousness, activity, and assertion (social butterfly or happy hermit?)
  15. Agreeableness
    Has to do with kindness, empathy, and the ability to compromise (easygoing and pleasant or stubborn and hot-tempered?)
  16. Neuroticism
    Refers to our general tendency toward mental health versus psychological disturbance (resilient and stable or hostile and high strung and hysterical?)
  17. Generativity
    In Erikson's theory, the seventh psycho-social task, in which people in midlife find meaning from nurturing the next generation, caring for others, or enriching the lives of others through their work. According to Erikson, when midlife adults have not achieved generativity, they feel stagnant, without a sense of purpose in life
  18. Stagnation
    In Erikson's theory, when people in midlife fail to achieve meaning and purpose by caring for others, they are in a stagnation phase
  19. Seattle Longitudinal study on intelligence
    The definitive study of the effect of aging on intelligence, carried out by K. Warner Schaie, involving simultaneously conucting and comparing the results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies carried out with a group of Seattle volunteers
  20. Fluid IQ
    A basic facet of intelligence, consisting of the ability to quickly master new intellectual activities - decreases with age
  21. Crystallized IQ
    A basic facet of intelligence, consisting of a person's knowledge base, or storehouse of accumulated information - increases with age
  22. Caregiving
    Caregiving grandparents are grandparents who have taken on full responsibility for raising their grandchildren - otherwise the caregivers are the parents (or guardians)
  23. Sandwich generation
    Generation of people who care for their aging parents while simultaneously caring for their own children
  24. Attitudes to changes in physical appearance in middle-aged women
    • Despite the clear signs of physical decay, body dissatisfaction does not increase in midlife (it is at its peak in college years) 
    • Unless they are particularly age-phobic, middle-aged women reject extreme body-altering measures such as face lifts, but want to age as beautifully as possible using creams and dyes
  25. Physiological changes of aging: Vision
    • Accommodation of the eye (the ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina) experiences a sharp decline - from weakening of muscle and growth of lens size, leads to difficulty seeing close objects
    • Size of pupil shrinks and lens yellows - limits ability to see in dim light, limits color discrimination
    • Reduced blood supply limits visual field and induces blind spots
  26. Physiological changes of aging: Hearing
    • 14-25% of American adults between 45 and 64 have hearing loss
    • Declines are hereditary and age-related
    • Decline begins with a loss at high frequencies (receptors are closer to the outer end of the ear than lower frequency receptors) 
    • Men's hearing declines earlier and faster than women
  27. Late Adulthood
    • Age 65 to death
    • Stages are integrity vs despair
    • Declining physical health, growing psychological health
  28. Physiological changes of aging: Health
    There is a sharp decline in cancer and heart disease, but a ton of diabetes
  29. Impact of physiological changes on an individual's independence and social life
    • The proportion of older adults needing assistance with everyday activities increases with age
    • 9% of those between ages 65 and 70 need personal assistance
    • Up to 50% of those older than 85 need assistance with everyday activities
  30. Young-old age
    • Healthy, vigorous, and financially secure
    • Older adults, generally between 60 and 75 who are well integrated into the lives of their families and communities
  31. Old-old age
    Older adults, generally older than 75, who suffer from physical, mental, or social deficits
  32. Oldest-old age
    Elderly adults generally over 85 who are dependent on others for almost everything, requiring supportive services such as nursing homes and hospital stays
  33. World-wide trends in median age change
    They're all increasing - as birth rates decline and people live longer, the median age will increase
  34. Changes in brain activity with age
    Older adults use more parts of their brains to do the same tasks, and have less brain tissue to use
  35. Executive function
    Older adults have difficulties with divided-attention tasks – situations in which they need to memorize material or perform an activity while monitoring something else.
  36. Multitasking/distributed attention
    Divided attention: a difficult memory challenge involving memorizing material while simultaneously monitoring something else
  37. Semantic memory
    In the memory-systems perspective, a moderately resilient (long-lasting) type of memory; refers to our ability to recall basic facts
  38. Episodic memory
    In the memory-systems perspective, the most fragile type of memory, involving the recall of the ongoing events of daily life
  39. Procedural memory
    In the memory-systems perspective, the most resilient (longest-lasting) type of memory; refers to material such as well-learned physical skills, that we automatically recall without conscious awareness
  40. Emotionally-salient vs neutral memories
    We learn emotionally relevant material better - so neutral memories are more prone to be ignored. This is why standard laboratory tests sometimes aren't really depicting an adult's true memory ability
  41. Vascular dementia
    A type of age-related dementia caused by multiple small strokes
  42. Alzheimer's disease
    A type of age-related dementia characterized by neural atrophy and abnormal by-products of that atrophy, such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
  43. APOE-4
    • Largest known genetic risk factor for Alzheimers (misfolding)
    • Present in IDLs for lipoprotein catabolism
  44. Late-live positivity effect
    The tendency for older people to focus on positive experiences and screen out negative events
  45. Pension
    The major source of nongovernmental income support for retirees, in which the individual worker and employer put a portion of each paycheck into an account to help finance retirement
  46. Social security
    the US government's national retirement support program
  47. Facts about ADL impairments
    • ADL: activities of daily living
    • Problems: difficulty in performing everyday tasks that are required for living independently. ADLs are classified as either basic (essential activities - i.e. eating, standing up, going to the bathroom) and instrumental (everyday household tasks, cooking, cleaning).
  48. Gender differences in aging
    • Women age easier - less early heart attacks (thanks to estrogen) 
    • Men die quicker and sooner 
    • Women live longer but end up being more frail
    • Women are always losing bone mass, and are usually always in poorer health than their age-related male counterparts
  49. New trends in obesity in old adulthood
    Adults are more likely to be obese than to get cancer and heart disease
  50. Assisted-living facility
    A housing option providing care for elderly people who have instrumental ADL impairments and can no longer live independently but may not need a nursing home
  51. Day-care program
    A service for impaired older adults who live with relatives, in which the older person spends that day at a center offering various activities
  52. Home health services
    Nursing-oriented and housekeeping help provided in the home of an impaired older adult (or any other impaired person)
  53. Nursing home/long-term care facility
    A residential institution that provides shelter and intensive caregiving, primarily to older people who need help with basic ADLs
  54. Continuing-care retirement community
    A housing option characterized by a series of levels of care for elderly residents, ranging from independent apartments to assisted living to nursing home care. People enter the community in relatively good health and move to sections where they can get more care when they become disabled
  55. Integrity vs Despair
    Integrity: eighth stage in Erikson's model in which older adults decide that their life missions have been fulfilled and so accept impending death (as opposed to if they have not been fulfilled and are therefore despairing over their impending death)
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Psych 250 Exam 4
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