Easy Points: Medicine - Ears

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  1. A firm, nodular, hypertrophic mass of scar tissue extending beyond the area of injury. It may develop in any scarred area but is most common on the shoulders and upper chest. on apierced earlobe may have troublesome cosmetic effects. more common in darker-skinned people. Recurrence may follow treatment.
  2. This chronic inflammatory lesion starts as a painful, tender papule on the helix or antihelix. later stage of ulceration and crusting. Reddening may occur. Biopsy is needed to rule out carcinoma
    Chondrodermatitis hellcis
  3. A deposit of uric acid crystals characteristic of chronic tophaceous gout. It appears as hard nodules in the helix or antihelix and may discharge chalky white crystals through the skin. It also may appear near the joints, hands (p. 675), feet,and other areas. It usually develops after chronic sustained high blood levels of uric acid.
  4. This raised nodule shows the lustrous surface and telangiectatic vessels of basal cell carcinoma, a common slow-growing malignancy that rarely metastasizes. Growth and ulceration may occur. These are more frequent in fair-skinned people overexposed to sunlight.
    Basal cell carcinoma
  5. Formerly called a sebaceous cyst, a dome shaped lump in the dermis forms a benign closed firm sac attached to the epidermis. Adark dot (blackhead) may bevisible on its surface.Histologically, it is usually either(1) an epidermoid cyst, commonon the face and neck, or (2) apilar (trichilemmal) cyst,common in the scalp. Both may become inflamed
    Cutaeneous cyst
  6. small lumps on the helix or antihelix and additional nodules elsewhere on the hands, along the surface of the ulna distal to theelbow (p. 674), and on the knees and heels. Ulceration may result from repeated injuries. Such nodules may antedate the arthritis.
    Rheumatoid nodules
  7. Condition with holes in the eardrum, usually from purulent infections of the middle ear. They are classified as central or marginal
    Perforations of the eardrum
  8. Condition with a large, chalky white patch with irregular margins. a deposition of hyaline material within the layers of the tympanic membrane that sometimes follows a severe episode of otitis media. It does not usually impair hearing and is seldom clinically significant.
  9. Condition usually caused by viral upper respiratory infections (otitis media withserous effusion) or by sudden changes in atmospheric pressure as from flying or diving(otitic barotrauma). The eustachian tube cannot equalize the air pressure in the middleear and outside air. Air is absorbed from the middle ear into the bloodstream, and serousfluid accumulates there instead. Symptoms include fullness and popping sensations in theear, mild conduction hearing loss, and, sometimes, pain.
    Serous effusion
  10. In this condition, Amber fluid behind the eardrum is characteristic. A fluid level, a line between air above and amber fluid below, can be seen oneither side of the short process. Air bubbles (not always present) can be seen here withinthe amber fluid.
    Serous effusion
  11. commonly caused by bacterial infection fromS. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Symptoms include earache, fever, and hearing loss. Theeardrum reddens, loses its landmarks, and bulges laterally, toward the examiner’s eye.
    Acute otitis media with purulent effusions
  12. In this condition, the eardrum is bulging, and most landmarks are obscured. Redness is most obviousnear the umbo, but dilated vessels can be seen in all segments of the drum. A diffuseredness of the entire drum often develops. Spontaneous rupture (perforation) of thedrum may follow, with discharge of purulent material into the ear canal.
    Acute otitis media with purulent effusion
  13. Hearing loss is the conductive type of this condition. more commonin children than in adults.
    Acute otitis media with purulent effusion
  14. Condition with painful hemorrhagic vesicles appear on the tympanic membrane,the ear canal, or both. Symptoms include earache, blood-tinged discharge from the ear,and conductive hearing loss.
    Bullous myringitis
  15. Condition with large vesicles (bullae) are discernible on the drum. Thedrum is reddened, and its landmarks are obscured.This condition is caused by mycoplasma, viral, and bacterial otitis media.
    Bullous myringitis
  16. Hearing loss with External or middle ear disorder impairs soundconduction to inner ear. Causes include foreign body,otitis media, perforated eardrum, and otosclerosis ofossicles.
    Conductive loss
  17. Hearing loss in Childhood and young adulthood, up to age 40
    Conductive loss
  18. Hearing loss with Abnormality usually visible, except in otosclerosis
    Conductive loss
  19. Hearing loss with the following effects:
    Little effect on sound
    Hearing seems to improve in noisy environment
    Voice remains soft because inner ear and cochlearnerve are intact
    Conductive loss
  20. Hearing loss with the following Weber test results:
    Tuning fork at vertex
    Sound lateralizes to impaired ear—room noise notwell heard, so detection of vibrations improves
    Conductive loss
  21. Hearing loss with the following Rinne test results:
    Tuning fork at external auditory meatus; then onmastoid bone" Bone conduction longer than or equal to airconduction (BC ! AC). While air conductionthrough the external or middle ear is impaired,vibrations through bone bypass the problem toreach the cochlea.
    Conductive loss
  22. Hearing loss with Inner ear disorder involves cochlear nerve andneuronal impulse transmission to the brain. Causesinclude loud noise exposure, inner ear infections,trauma, acoustic neuroma, congenital and familialdisorders, and aging.
    Sensorineural loss
  23. Hearing loss usually during Middle or later years
    Sensorineural loss
  24. Hearing loss with the following effects:
    Higher registers are lost, so sound may be distorted
    Hearing worsens in noisy environment
    Voice may be loud because hearing is difficult
    Sensorineural loss
  25. Hearing loss with the following Weber's test result:
    Tuning fork at vertex
    Sound lateralizes to good ear—inner ear or cochlearnerve damage impairs transmission to affected ear.
    Sensorineural loss
  26. Hearing loss with the following Rinne's test results:
    Tuning fork at external auditory meatus; then onmastoid bone
    Air conduction longer than bone conduction(AC > BC). The inner ear or cochlear nerve is lessable to transmit impulses regardless of how thevibrations reach the cochlea. The normal patternprevails.
    Sensorineural loss
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Easy Points: Medicine - Ears
Medicine: Ears
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