___________ is an eighteenth-century phase of the Baroque era that is characterized by lighter colours, greater wit, playfulness, occasional eroticism, and yet more ornate decoration.
___________'s fete galante paintings, such as Pilgrimage to Cythera, depict the outdoor amusements of French upper-class society with an air of suave gentility of Rococo taste.
The female artist __________ elevated the sitter by conveying refinement and elegance while clearly individualizing the sitter.
Elizabeth Vigee Le Brun
When considering modernity and modern art the key component to this movement began as a direct outgrowth and reflection of the ___________.
The Neoclassical Period is also thought of as the Age of _________.
The return to the classical style of the Neoclassical period was based upon the excavations of _________ which began in 1748.
Pompeii and Herculaneum
Neoclassical painter-ideologist of the French Revolution __________'s painting the Oath of the Horatio celebrates ancient Roman patriotism and sacrifice featuring statuesque figures and classical architecture.
____________ is a ninteeth-century movement that depicted Enlightenment ideals, and can be thought of in terms of the depiction of heroism, and idealism. Furthermore, there was an interest in rationality, truth, reason, and logic.
The painting The Death of General Wolfe by _______ used modern dress rather than antique drapery to depict a contemporary historical event within a classical composition, and representative an episode of the conquest of Quebec in 1759.
Jefferson based his design for Monticello on the work of _________.
_________ is considered to be the first modern art historian, who was one of the first to systematically organize art by style and period.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
__________ is a nineteeth-century movement that rebelled against academic neoclassicism by seeking extremes of emotion as enhanced by exceptional brushwork and a brilliant palette. It may be thought of as a counter-Enlightenment movement, or perhaps as an oppositional phase of Enlightenment that was grounded in difference rather than uniformity
Romanticism believed in the notion that __________, and they also valued sincere feeling and honest emotions.
Feeling is All
According to Emanuel Kant the "sublime" is something that is ______.
Social-Romanticist __________ depicted horrified expressions and anguish on the massacred Spanish in his The Third of May, 1808, endowing them with a humanity lacking in the French firing squad.
Francisco de Goya
___________'s painting Liberty Leading the People probably best exemplifies the common notion of romantic art.
Because of America's relatively short period of history artists during the early 19th century were investigating their own type of History Painting - that of __________.
The Hudson River School was a group of ninteenth-century American landscape painters who worked in the eastern United States along the Hudson River. _________'s painting The Oxbow (View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Mass) presents the group's ideas of expansive wilderness incorporating the "Sublime", Manifest Destiny, and the romantic appeal to the public.
Writing the manifesto on Realism, the painting Burial at Ornans by ___________ epitomizes the style of realism.
______ is a style of art characterized by portraying subject matter accurately, truthfully, and the "truthful, objective and impartial representation of the real world, based on meticulous observation of contemporary life."
Work sanctioned by the official academics and art schools was referred to as ________. this work was tightly controlled, competitive, and subsidized by the government. It supported a limited range of subject matter and a highly polished technique and did not encourage experimentation or innovation.
Edouard __________ borrowed the composition for his painting Luncheon on the Grass from Raimondi's engraving The Judgement of Paris.
The first woman artist to receive the Légion d'Honeeur (1865).
The invention of ________ shortly before the mid-century was a significant milestone, as it altered the public perceptions of "Reality."
The quinssential American artist ___________ depicted the modern interest in realism medicine and science in his painting The Gross Clinic.
Considering the greatest elemental aspect in which propelled society into modernity is the onset of a greater sense of _________; rapid urbanization; the rise of mass media and industrial models of mass production, which contributed to an extensive co-modification of the marketplace.
In ________'s painting Nocturne in Black in Gold (Falling Rocket) he displayed an interest in conveying the atmospheric effects of fireworks at night along with emphasizing the abstract arrangement of shapes and colours.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
A hostile art critic applied the expression "Impressionism" as a derogatory term to _________'s painting Impression: Sunrise. The artist wanted to display the Impressionist interest in vagrant effects of light.
________ is a late nineteenth-century style of art characterized by the attempt to capture the fleeting effects of light by means of painting in short strokes of pure colour.
Many of the Impressionists, including Monet, were dedicated to working ________ that is, out of doors.
En plein air
American born Impressionist artist __________ approach to the composition owes much to Japanese prints, including the painting The Bath.
____________ is a late nineteenth-century art style that relies on the gains made by impressionists in terms of the use of colour and spontaneous brushwork, but which uses these elements as expressive devices.
Writing the theories on colour ________'s painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of la Grande Jatte was painted with small dots of colour, a technique known as Pointillism.
____________ attempted to communicate the vastness of the universe in his painting Starry Night.
Vincent van Gogh
_________ is a modern school of art in which an emotional impact is achieved through agitated brushwork, intense coloration, and violent, hallucinatory imagery.
The artist __________ wanted to reduce everything to cylinders, sphere, and cones, i.e. geometric.
The artist _________ replaced the transitory visual effects of changing atmospheric conditions, with careful analysis of the lines, planes, and colours of nature in the painting Mont Ste. Victoire.
________ is a movement in which could be thought of in terms of a notion that is ambiguous, and a symbol of something more meaningful and, an art that suggests rather than defines.
Depicting the feeling of the era of alienation, fragmentation and despair, __________'s Burghers of Calais, commemorate an episode during the Hundred Years' War, when six Calais citizens offered their lives to save their city.
As we enter the 20th century artists wanted "to make it new," they believed in Innovation and a Rejection of the Past. In the arts there is the breakdown and/or rejection of traditional systems of representation and the proliferation of experimental avant-garde groups; and the emergence of socialist, feminist and anti- or post-colonial politics. True or False?
_______ is a term that translates as "wild beasts". This group of artists wanted to convey not describe with colour.
_______ believed painters should choose compositions that express their feelings. Reflecting his interest in Persian illuminated manuscripts the painting Red Room (Harmony in Red) has a repetition of identical patterning and colour of the table and of the wall.
Dresden Expressionism, also known as _______ is a group that expressed the idea of Bridging from animals to higher humans, and also bridging from the past to the future.
Die Brucke (The Bridge)
Munich Expressionism, also known as _______, is a group that dictated the spirituality of painting.
Der Balue Reiter (Blue Ryder)
The author of "Concerning the Spiritual in Art was __________, who also in 1913 would produce what were the first free-form, largely nonobjective art of the new century, as seen in the painting Improvisation 28.
African and ancient Iberian sculpture and the late paintings of Cézanne influenced __________'s pivotal work Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, with which opened the door to a radically new method of representing forms in space.
__________ is a group of artists that wanted to break up the image into geometric elements, and to have multiple viewpoints with no perspective, in other words to deconstruct objects.
______ can be thought of in terms of a diverse level of creativity formed from movement, energy, destruction and mass confusion, which also used anarchist and fascist tendencies.
In the bronze Unique Forms of Continuity in Space Italian Futurist artist __________ wanted to capture pure plastic rhythm, which is a running figure so expanded and interrupted that it almost disappears behind a blur of its movement.
________ is a group of artists that dounded a deliberately meaningless name of the first anti-art movement. They depicted anything that didn't make sense, and avoided meaning. They also believed that everything in which belongs to the world belongs to the War.
________'s Dada photomontage Cut with a Kitchen Knife, presents to the viewer the chaotic, contradictory, and satiric commentary on the period.
___________ is a group of artists that believed that the key to universal harmony is the right angle. Right angle is cosmic connection - one constant in the universe.
The _____ was a 1913 exhibition that contained more than 1600 works representing both European and American artists. The show illustrated the major artistic developments in Europe and brought those ideas and art works to the United States audience. It also provided American artists with a showcase for their works.
_________'s painting Nude Descending a Staircase, No.2, was singled out by the hostile critics at the Armory Show of 1913 as emblematic of this so-called insanity and corruption of the new art.
Calling his style "Cosmic Cubism" _______ painted an elergy to a lover killed in battle during World War I, which can be seen in the work Portrait of a German Officer.
"I believe in the future resolution of the states of dream and reality, in appearance so contradictory, in a sort of absolute reality, ore surreality." This definition of Surrealism was written by _______.
The discrepancy between Surrealist ___________'s The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images, meticulously painted pipe and his caption, "This is not a pipe," challenges the viewers reliance on the conscious and the ration in the reading of visual art.
_________ embodies an ambiguous unconscious consciousness formed from a dream-like state and image. Their goals were to confuse, awaken, question and ponder the reality of thought.
De Stijl artist __________ depicted the key to universal harmony is the right angle: the right angle is cosmic connection - one constant in the universe, in the painting Compostion in Red, Blue, and Yellow.
Considered as the paradigm of organic architecture _____________'s Kaufmann House (Fallingwater) sought to incorporate the structure more fully with the site, thereby ensuring a fluid, dynamic exchange between the interior and the natural environment outside.
Frank Lloyd Wright
In the softly curbing surface of his elegant Bird in Space, ________ emphasized the natural and organic. The artist sought to move beyond surface appearances to capture the essence or spirit of the object depicted.
___________ photographed the rural poor who were displaced by the Great depression in the 1930s, as seen in the photograph Migrant Mother.
__________ was an avid proponent of a social and poltical role for art in the lives of the common people, which he depicted in his public mural Ancient Mexico, from the History of Mexico.
Post WWII artist could not move away from death, as seen in __________'s work titled Painting.
According to the art critic __________ in modernism the single most importance of a work of art is rendered pure.
__________ is considered to be the first major art style developed in the US, characterized by spontaneous execution, and intense color.
What was the main content of the work of the postwar New York School?
The act of painting itself
Color field painting can be considered as depicting the essence of color, which can be seen in __________'s painting No. 14.
Pop Art is art that utilized imagery derived from __________.
Advertising, consumer culture, industrial design, and Hollywood movies.
American Pop artist __________ wanted to draw attention to common objects that people view frequently but rarely examine.
In the later 20th century, the domination of modern formalism in art gave way to an eclectic postmodernism that encouraged a wider range of style. True or false?
In 1974, ____________ began what is known as the first feminist art, titled The Dinner Party.
Cindy Sherman's photographic film stills interrogate the significance of __________.
The male gaze
__________'s Portland Building displays postmodernism's strict formalism and eclecticism, but not structural honesty.
__________'s Vietnam Memorial employed a minimalist formal vocabulary.
Modernist art emphasizes the accord and autonomous aspect of an artist, while ______________ art emphasizes the fusion o the work of art.
Calling attention to biological concerns, __________ used industrial equipment to create environmental artworks by manipulating earth and rock.
Pluralism in the arts is the inclusion of ONLY a white, male master, and NOT exploring or embracing women artists, artists of color, non western art, and folk art.
In the later part of the 20th century, many artists have produced works prompted by socio political concerns: aspects of __________.