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2013-12-10 04:55:01

medical ethics terms
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  1. Eudaimonia
    Greek: Flourishing/ happiness
  2. Doctrine of the mean
    Aristotle's doctrine virtues exist as a mean between two extremes - one of excess & one of deficiency
  3. Virtue
    Character trait needed for being a good person/ living well
  4. Social Contract theory (moral rules)
    hypothetical agreement of group under constraints = moral rules
  5. Ethical Relativism
    • View that there is no objective truth in ethics
    • moral truths are relative to the individual (culture)
  6. Explain 2 arguments for ethical relativism
    • Desire to be tolerant of other cultures + way of life
    • CDA - general puzzlement about how ethical claims could possibly be objectively true
  7. Explain 2 arguments against Ethical Relativism
    • Moral infallibility of ones own culture (not all cultural moral value are true)
    • Impossiblity of moral progress
  8. Descriptive Ethics
    • What is the case rather than what ought to be the case
    • what people BELEIVE
  9. Normative Ethics
    • General theoretical questions
    • what makes acts morally right/wrong?
    • How one ought to live?
  10. Reflective Equilibrium
    back/forth between comparing principles to achieve coherence or consistency
  11. Circular Argument
    • begging the question
    • the truth of conclusion is presupposed by one or more premises
  12. Straw man fallacy
    The fallacy of misrepresenting one's argument so that it is easily shown to be weak
  13. False Dilemma
    Fallacy in which fewer option are presented than are actually available in a way which is misleading
  14. Consequentialism
    view that the right act is entirely determined by its consequences (most good/ least bad)
  15. Utilitarianism
    • Takes many forms
    • the view that right actions, laws, policies promote the most pleasure/ least pain for all concerned.
  16. Rule Utilitarianism
    The right action is done according to rules that maximize happiness and minimize unhappiness if followed
  17. Prima facie duties
    Conditional duties
  18. Duties all things considered
    The duty that is most pressing after all prima-facie duties are considered.
  19. Moral argument
    • Arguments with a moral claim in the conclusion
    • Valid if they contain a moral premise
  20. Unsound Argument
    False premise and/or logically invalid
  21. Invalid argument
    Premises, even if true, fail to prove the conclusion
  22. Valid argument
    If premises are true, conclusion must be true
  23. Sound argument
    Valid argument with all true premises
  24. Hedonsim
    sole ultimate good is pleasure, sole ultimate bad is pain
  25. Equal consideration
    the principal that no one's good is to be counted as more important than anyone else's
  26. Hypothetical Imperative
    A command that states what one ought to do given the presence of a desire/goal
  27. Good will
    If one does an act of of respect for morality or categorical imperative (they have good will and act has moral worth)
  28. Perfect Duty
    A duty that must always be followed
  29. Imperfect Duty
    A duty that one must sometimes followed
  30. Contradiction in conception
    A result when one is not able to will a maxim as a universal law because it would be self-contradictory (indicates perfect duty violation)
  31. Contradiction in will
    • One cannot conceive of a maxim as a universal law, but not able to will it. (What person will want later) 
    • indicates violation of imperfect duty
  32. Categorical Imperative
    What one ought to do regardless of one's desires or goals
  33. Humanity version of the categorical imperative
    One must treat humanity always as an end and never merely as a means
  34. Original Position
    Hypothetical situation where people are equaly powerful, intelligent and ignorant of advantages / disadvantages
  35. Veil of ignorance
    A barrier that prevents people from knowing anything about themselves (original position)
  36. Universal Law version of the categorical imperative
    Act only on those maxims that you can, at the same time, will as a universal law
  37. Deontology
    Category of ethical theory that see's right action as doing one's duty