Microbiology Chapter 13.txt

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tbednarick
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Microbiology Chapter 13.txt
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2010-06-29 14:46:12
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Microbiology Thirteen
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Microbiology Chapter 13
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  1. Chancre
    painless circular, purplish ulcer with a small raised margin and hard edges
  2. Gumma
    Soft, painless gummy, noninfectious, granular lesion that can affect any part of the body and cause sloughing
  3. Syphilis Treatment
    Penicillin
  4. Syphilis Diagnosis:
    • Wassermann test
    • Treponemal Ab test
  5. Syphilis, Congenital
    • Hutchenson�s triad
    • Deafness
    • Poor vision
    • Peg shaped teeth
  6. Syphilis Organism
    • Treponema pallidum
    • Spirochete
  7. Syphilis Stages
    • Primary: chancre
    • Secondary: skin rash
    • Tertiary: gumma
  8. Gonorrhea organism
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • G- diplococcus, double bean shape
  9. Gonorrhea can also affect the
    • Reproductive organs
    • Pharynx
    • Rectum
    • Eyes
  10. Infants can contract
    Gonococcal ophthalmia while passing through the birth canal
  11. In females it can spread to the fallopian tubes, causing:
    • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
    • possible sterility
    • ectopic pregnancy
    • salpingitis
  12. Males experience what in gonorrhea
    • tingling of the penis
    • pain when urinating
    • penile discharge
    • swollen lymph nodes
    • painful testicles
    • It can cause infertility in males
  13. Identify the organs in which gonorrhea occurs during the original infection and during complications of gonorrhea
    • Females: cervix and fallopian tubes. Steritily may result from scar tissue
    • Males: urethra, lymph nodes, testicles.
    • Pharynx, rectum, eyes
  14. Compare chlamydial urethritis (Chlamydia) with gonorrhea with respect to causative organism, organs affected incidence, treatment, complications and diagnosis.
  15. Gonorrhea Organissm
    Neisseria gonorhoeae,
  16. Gonorrhea Organs affected
    Urogenital organs, pharynx, rectum, eyes
  17. Gonorrhea incidence
    • 2nd most commond reported disease
    • 355,991 in 2007
  18. Gonorrhea treatment
    • Penicillin, tetracycline
    • Silver nitrate or erythromycin
  19. Gonorrhea complications
    Sterility, keratitis (eyes)
  20. Gonorrhea diagnosis
    • Observing G- diplocci (double bean) & white blood cells
    • Can use a test that has a color reaction
    • There is also DNA test
  21. Chlamydia Organism
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Exceptionally small, round to ovoid with a cell membrane and outer membrane but without any peptidoglycan
  22. Chlamydia organs affected
    • Females: slight vaginal discharge, inflammation of the cervix, burning during urination. May spread to and block the fallopian tubes causing salpingitis. 40% of untreated infections progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
    • Males: painful urination and discharge that is more watery and less copious than gonorrhea. Chlamidial pharyngitis or proctitis is possible as a result of oral or anal intercourse. May reduce sperm quality.
  23. Chlamydia incidence
    • Most common STD
    • More than 1 million new cases in 2007
    • Chlamydia complications
    • Sterility, miscarriage, neonatal conjunctivitis
  24. Chlamydia treatment
    1 dose of azithromycin or 7 days of doxycycline. Erythromycin if woman is pregnant
  25. Chlamydia diagnosis
    • 2 fast and simple tests. A swap sample is used for a fluorescent antibody test using monoclonal antibodies.
    • An imunoassy test with a swap sample similar to gonorrhea test. In Dr. office
    • DNA test is also available.
  26. Salpingitis
    Chlamydia may spread to and block the fallopian tubes
  27. Name and briefly describe 4 sexually transmitted diseases other than syphilis, gonorrhea and Chlamydia.
    • Chancroid:Soft chancre, Erythema, swollen inguinal lymph nodes
    • Ureaplasma urethritis: Similar to gonorrhea but variable discharg, pain aggravated when urinating
    • Lymphogranuloma venereum: fever, malaise, more common in females, swelling and tender lymph nodes
    • Granuloma inguinale" primary lesion starting as a nodule and progressing to a granular ulcer that bleeds easily. Swollen lymph nodes in groin.
  28. UReaplasma urethritis, an STD
    Pain on urination, variable discharge, salpinitis
  29. Lymphogranuloma venereum, an STD
    Swollen lymph nodes, proctitis
  30. Granuloma inguinale, an STD
    Bleeding ulcer, swollen unguinal lymph nodes
  31. Leprosy
    • Is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast rod
    • Hansen disease. Discovered by Gerhard Hansen.
    • 3-6 year incubation
  32. Major Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
    • Syphilis
    • Gonorrhea
    • Chlamydial urethritis
  33. Syphilis Bacteria
    • Treponema pallidum
    • Spirochete
  34. Syphilis Stages:
    • Primary: chancre
    • Secondary: skin rash
    • Tertiary: gumma
  35. Syphilis Congenital:
    • Hutchenson�s triad:
    • Deafness
    • Poor vision
    • Peg shaped teeth
  36. Syphilis Treatment
    penicillin
  37. Syphilis Diagnosis:
    • Wassermann test
    • Treponemal Ab test
    • Third most reported microbial disease in U.S.
  38. Gonorrhea bacteria
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • G- diplococcus
  39. Gonorrhea Symptoms: female
    • Reddened cervix, abdominal pain, burning sensation during urination
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    • Gonorrhea Symptoms: male
    • Tingling sensation, pain, thick white discharge
    • Gonorrhea Symptoms: general
    • Gonococcal pharyngitis
    • Gonococcal proctitis
    • Gonococcal ophthalmia
  40. Gonorrhea Treatment and control
    • Susceptible to antiseptics and disinfectants
    • Treatment: penicillin, tetracycline
    • Silver nitrate or erythromycin
    • Incubation: 2 to 6 days
  41. Chlamydial urethritis (chlamydia)
    • Chlamydia trachomatis
    • Nongonococcal urethritis
  42. Chlamydial urethritis Symptoms:
    • Mild gonorrhea-like
    • Chlamdial pneumonia
  43. Chlamydial urethritis Treatment:
    Erythromycin
  44. Chlamydial urethritis Diagnosis
    Fluorescent Ab test
  45. Chlamydial urethritis Incubation
    1 to 3 weeks
  46. Contact Bacterial Diseases
    • Staphylococcal skin diseases
    • Bacterial conjunctivitis
  47. Staphylococcus aureus
    G+ coccus in clusters
  48. Staphylococcal skin diseases
    • Abscesses, boils, carbuncles
    • Scalded skin syndrome
    • Impetigo contagiosum
  49. Staphylococcal skin diseases Treatment:
    penicillin
  50. Staphylococcal other diseases
    Pneumonia, meningitis, nephritis
  51. Impetigo
    Is a skin infection common in children involving oozing blisters in the epidermis
  52. MRSA
    • Methicillin-resistan Staphlococcal aureus
    • Antibiotic resistance in S. aureus is well known
  53. Some S. aureus diseases result from contact with toxin
    • Scalded skin syndrome involves red, wrinkled, tender, and peeling skin
    • This usually occurs in children or immunocompromised people
  54. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
    • Is characterized by sudden fever and circulatory collapse
    • Use of tampons have been associated with TSS, but it is not the only cause
  55. Trachoma
    • Transmitted by Personal Contact
    • Trachoma is the world�s leading cause of preventable blindness
    • It is caused by a serotype of Chlamydia trachomatis
  56. Trachoma is transmitted by:
    • contact with contaminated objects
    • face-to-face contact
    • flies
  57. Trachoma Symptoms
    • Nodules form in the conjunctive
    • The upper eyelid can turn in, causing abrasion of the cornea
    • Tear flow can be inhibited, allowing for secondary infections
  58. Bacterial conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)
    • Haemophilus influenzae III
    • G- bacillus
    • Very contagious
  59. Bacterial conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Symptoms:
    • Pink whites, discharge, swollen and itchy eyes
    • Symptoms last 2 weeks
    • The conjunctive is inflamed and blood vessels dilate
    • This causes the white of the eye to appear pink
    • The eye is swollen and itchy and excretes copious discharge
  60. Bacterial conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Treatment
    neomycin
  61. Bacterial Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) is often caused by
    Haemophilus aegyptius
  62. Bacterial conjunctivitis (Pinkeye) Treatment is extremely contagious, spread by:
    • contaminated objects
    • face-to-face contact
    • airborne droplets
  63. Yaws (frambesia) is caused by
    • Treponema pertenue
    • Yaws is similar to
    • Appearance and chemistry similar to Treponema palladium
  64. Yaws Transmission
    Occurs through nonsexual contact
  65. Yaws symptoms
    • First, a red, raised lesion occurs at the site of entry
    • Later, numerous soft granular nodules appear on the face, arms, and legs
    • Left untreated, destruction of limb and face flesh and bone occurs
  66. Oral diseases
    • 20 species of bacteria in the mouth
    • streptococcus, lactobacilli, spirochetes, filamentous bacteria
  67. Plaque:
    • Protein, polysaccharides, bacteria
    • 1 billion bacteria per gram of plaque
  68. Dental caries caused by
    • Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. mitis, S. salivarius
    • G+ coccus in chains
    • Ferments sucrose and makes lactic acid
  69. Dental caries Prevention:
    • Fluoride
    • low sucrose diet
    • Killing cariogenic bacteria
  70. Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, (trench mouth)
    • Leptotrichia
    • G- bacillus
    • Treponema vencentii
    • Spirochete
    • Invasion of tissue, causes ulcers
  71. If a person sustains an intestinal injury, Bacteroides fragilis may enter the bloodstream and cause:
    • peritonitis
    • abdominal abscesses
  72. Infection by Clostridium difficle cause
    • pseudomembanous colitis
    • Lesions form on the intestinal lining
  73. Actinomycosis is caused by
    Actinomyces israelii, which infects tissues following trauma
  74. Nocardiosis is often caused by
    Nocardia asteroides, which causes pneumonia when inhaled
  75. Animal Bite Diseases Occasionally Occur
  76. Pasteurellosis is caused by
    Pasteurella mutlocida,
  77. P. mutlocida is
    common in the pharynx of dogs and cats
  78. Common symptoms are:
    • local redness
    • warmth
    • swelling
    • tenderness
    • abscesses
  79. B. henselae and B. quintana appear to cause
    bacterial angiomatosis (BA)
  80. Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is associated with
    • Bartonella henselae
    • It can be transmitted from a bite, scratch, or lick from an infected cat
    • Swollen lymph glands are a common symptom
  81. Rat-bite fever is caused by
    • Actinobacillus muris in the U.S. and by Spirillum minus in Asia
    • The bacteria are found in the pharynx of wild rats and other rodents
    • Lesion, fever, and rash tend to occur as well as joint pain
  82. Plaque is
    A biofilm, containing salivary proteins, food debris and bacterial cells and products
  83. Dental caries (tooth decay) results from:
    • plaque building
    • dietary carbohydrates
    • acidogenic bacteria
  84. A major cause of caries is
    • Streptococcus mutans
    • They ferment dietary carbohydrates into acids
  85. Fluoride and diet can
    prevent dental caries
  86. Periodontal disease (fusospirochetal disease) results from
    the inflammation of periodontal tissue
  87. Poor oral hygiene leads to increased
    subgingival plaque, which can be populated by bacteria
  88. Subgingival plaque is characterized by:
    • ulcers and bleeding along the gingival margin
    • degradation of periodontal ligaments and bone
    • loosened or lost teeth
  89. UTIs can occur in
    the urethra, bladder, and kidneys
  90. UTIs are often caused by
    E. coli, but other genera are also implicated
  91. UTIs Symptoms include
    • abdominal or back pain
    • burning during urination
    • frequent urges to urinate
  92. UTIs Complications include
    • Infection of the kidney (pyelonephritis)
    • Fever
    • Sepsis
    • decreased kidney function
  93. Nosocomial diseases
    • Acquired at hospital
    • 10% of all patients
    • 30% surgical patients
  94. Nosocomial dOpportunistic organisms
    • Pseudomonas aeroginosa
    • E. coli
    • Serratia marcessens
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  95. Nosocomial Infections Can Be Acquired in a Healthcare Setting
    • Up to 10% of all hospital patients in the U.S. develop a nosocomial disease
    • Many patients have some interference with normal immune defenses, making them susceptible
  96. Most nosocomial diseases are caused by
    opportunistic organisms the patients bring in themselves
  97. A chain of transmission between patients is established by:
    • Health care workers
    • Contaminated equipment or instruments
  98. Leprosy (Hansen Disease) Is a
    • Chronic, Systemic Infection
    • About 95% of the world�s population is immune to leprosy
    • It is spread through nasal secretions
    • It has a long incubation period of 3-6 years
  99. Leprosy (Hansen Disease) is caused by
    Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular parasite
  100. Leprosy causes:
    • disfigurement of skin and bones
    • twisting of limbs and curling of fingers
    • loss of facial features
  101. In multibacillary or lepromatous leprosy
    • tumor-like lepromas form on the skin and respiratory tract
    • The immune system does not react

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