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Water must be supplied on a _____ basis as it is required?
- On the largest basis
6 major functions fo water?
- Temp regulation
- Transport of nutrients
- Chemical reactions
- Cushionng of organs
- Transport of sight and sound
What are 2 major sources of heat in the animal body?
- Heat of fermentation
- Heat of nutrient metabolism (oxidation and bond breaking)
What do we see happen to the growth of an animal as it gets older in terms of water?
Adds less and elss water and more and more fatto its growth, thus becoming less efficient
Why do fat and water follow a negative inverse relaionship and what does this mean?
- MOre fat less water in the animal
- Because fat has 0 water in it and vise versa so if the proportion of the animal is more fat than it must be less water
Does it take more energy to deposite a kg of fat or lean tissue
Water content is highest in what animals and declines with what?
What are the main sources of water?
- drinking water
- water contained in feeds
- metabolic water
Give an example of a high moisture feed?
It stands to reason that an animal eating silage would neeed ______ water
How is metabolic water formed?
During metabolism by the oxidation of hydrogen contained foods
In the combustin of glucose how much of its weight ends up as water?
Describe an animal in a specific state that uses metabolic water to survivbe?
Describe the % of molecullar weight that ends up as water after the combustion of carb, protein, and fat?
Even though protein combustion produces 40% of its weight in water why is this misleading?
BEcause it also produces many byproducts that need water to be excreted
What is obligatory water loss?
How much water must be lost to excrete waste products
Do we store water in the body?
NO not unless in a disease state
4 sources of water loss? What is a 5th one that is dependant on sex and time of life?
What is the general rule of thumb of water consumption related to feed consumption?
3x more water consumption than feed consumption regardless of species
7 factors affecting water requirements and consumption
- Relative humidity
- Water content in diet
- Temperature of water
- amount and type of feed consumed
- Physiological state
- Health status
Give 4 symptoms of water deprivation?
- Reduced feed intake
- Reduced heart rate
- Increased boidy temp
- increased respiration
Roughly what amount of body water loss represents death?
What are 6 factors affecting water quality
- Dissolved mineral
- Toxic elements
- Pesticide residues
- Pathogenic organisms
- Industrial wastes
- Fecal material
What are the 3 main concerns of prairie water that we have affecting water quality?
- total dissolved solids
Where do sulphates come from? What is their effect? What should you do to counteract it? What is the high point for animsal use?
- Calcium sulphate rock (Gypsum)
- Reduce availability of micor and macro minerals
- Provide additional trace minerals such as copper
What is the high point for animal use of total dissolved solids? iS this true for all animals?
- No poultry are even lower
Where do nitrates come from? What is their effect? What should you do to counteract? What is the high point in animal use?
- Fertilizer or waste
- reduced vitamin A and increased methemoglobin
- prevent contamination nothiung you can do
Why are rumanents more susceptible to nitrate poisoning?
Convert to nitrites in rumen
When water is called hard what is this often related to?
Calcium and magnesium salts
Hard water is in what ppm range?
what could the use of hard water do to your animals? How could you fix this?
- Upset the calcium/phosphorus ratio causing leg problems
- Use a phosphorus source without calcium to supplement in some phosphorous to help
Why dont we want high fecal count in the water?
Easy to spread disease
What would lue green algae due to our water?
Unpalatable and toxic...
What are 3 ways we can improve water quality and what would each due?
Sand filter - removes macro particles such as algae etc also can remove some trace minerals such as manganese
Water softener - sodium replaces calcium and magnesium in the water
Reverse osmosis - removes almost all particles including nitrates and sulphates usually too expensive for farms
5 features of good water quality
- low total solids
- No disease organisms or pesticides
- No undesirable flavor or odor
- no objectionable gases
What happens with low levels of sodium? What about when they get over 10,000ppm? How can you fix this high level?
- Increases intake
- Decreases intake
- Removing salt from diet