Chemistry midterm

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Chemistry midterm
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2013-12-12 16:50:29
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Chemistry midterm
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  1. 1. What is matter? List 3 examples, (pg 39)
    A physical substance that occupies space and has mass

    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
  2. 2. What is an extensive property? List 2 examples (pg 39)
    Physical property of matter that depend on the amount of matter present
  3. Volume
    • Mass
    • Size
  4. 3. What are physical properties? List 3 examples. (pg40)
    Any property that is measurable

    • Color Temperature
    • Volume Strength
    • etc., etc.
  5. 4. Which state of matter is vapor? (pg42)
    Gas
  6. 5. Which state of matter has definite volume and takes the shape of its container? (pg 41)
    Liquid
  7. 6. Which state of matter takes both the shape and volume of its container? (pg 42)
    Gas
  8. 7.Which state of matter is characterized by having a definite shape and a definite volume? (pg 41)
    Solid
  9. 8. Which state of matter expands when heated and is easy to compress? (pg 42)
    Gas
  10. 9. What are homogeneous mixtures also known as?(pg 45)
    Solutions
  11. 10. What do we call a substance that can only be separated into two or more substances by a chemical change? (pg 48)
    compound
  12. 11. How many significant figures are in the number ?
    3
  13. 12. How many significant figures are in the number 450,600? (pg 66)
    4
  14. How many significant figures are in the number 0.000520?
    3
  15. 13. What is the chief advantage of the metric system?(pg 73)
    It is in multiples of 10 (base 10..makes the math easier)
  16. 14. What is the SI unit of mass? (pg 76)
    kilogram (kg)
  17. 15. Which temperature scale has no negative numbers? (pg 77)
    Kelvin
  18. 16. Which measurement, weight or mass, is affected by location? (pg 76)
    Weight
  19. 17. What is the temperature -49°C expressed in Kelvins? (pg 77-78)
    226.15 (Calculated as -49 + 273.15 = 226.15)
  20. 18. What is the formula for density? (pgs 90-91)
    mass/volume
  21. 19. What is the density of an object having a mass of 75 g and a volume of 15 ? (pgs 90-91)
          
  22. 20. What is the volume of an object with a mass of 45 grams and a density of ? (pgs 90-91)
        

    note: the answer must have 2 significant digits. The number 50 alone is 1 significant digit. 3 ways to write 50 with 2 significant digits:

      (with a period)

      (with an underline)

      (with an overline)
  23. 21. Who was the man who lived from 460 B.C. to 370 B.C. and was among the first to suggest the idea of an atom? (pg 101)
    Democritus
  24. 22. What is the smallest particle of an element that retains the Properties of that element? (pgs 101-102)
    Atom
  25. 23. What did Dalton say about atoms that we now know to be untrue? (pg 104)
    He said that atoms are indivisible which we now know is untrue
  26. 24. Are atoms positively charged, negatively charged or neutral? (pg 106)
    neutral
  27. 25. Which particles are found in the nucleus of the atom? (pgs 106-107)
    • protons
    • neutrons
  28. 26. Which particle, located in the nucleus of the atom, does the atomic number represent? (pg 110)
    protons
  29. 27. What does the sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom represent? (pg 111)
    Mass number
  30. 28. What does the number 235 in the name uranium-235 represent? (pg 111)
    • It's an isotope of uranium and its mass number is 235.
    • Since uranium has 92 protons we can calculate that uranium 235 has 143 neutrons (235-92=143).
  31. 29. What will an unstable nucleus do? (pg 800)
    Decay and release radiation
  32. 30. What is an alpha particle? (pg 800)
       (a helium nucleus with a 2+ charge that is released)
  33. 31. What is a beta particle? (pg 801)
      (it's the same as an electron)

     (sometimes it's written like this)
  34. 32. Which is the least penetrating form of radiation? (pg 802)
    Alpha particle
  35. 33. Write the symbol for an alpha particle, (pg 800)
      or  
  36. 34. What particle decomposes to produce the electron of beta radiation? (pg 801)
    Neutron
  37. 35. Complete the following equation:  _______ . (Pg 801)
  38. 36. In Bohr's model of the atom, where are the electrons and the protons located? (pg 128)
    the electrons orbit the protons in the center
  39. 37. How does the energy of an electron change as it moves closer to the nucleus? (pg 128)
    it decreases
  40. 38. What is the shape of the 3p atomic orbital? (pg 131)
    dumbbell
  41. 39. What is the maximum number of d orbitals in a principal energy level? (pgs 131-132)
    5
  42. 40. What does an electron absorb when it moves from a lower energy level to a higher energy level?(pg128)
    a quantum (amount) of energy
  43. 41. If the spin of one electron in an orbital is clockwise, what is the spin of the other electron in that orbital?(pg134)
    counterclockwise
  44. 42. What do stable electron configurations contain? (pg 136)
    filled energy sublevels (the valence shells are full)
  45. 43. How does the speed of light compare to the speed of gamma rays, when both are measured in a vacuum? (pg 139)
    the speeds are the same
  46. 44. Which color of light has the shortest wavelength? (pg 139)
    violet (shorter than that is ultraviolet)
  47. 45. How are wavelength and frequency related? (pg 139)
    inversely proportional (when one increases the other decreases)
  48. 46. What is another name for the representative elements? (pg 164)
    Group A elements
  49. 47. Name two elements in the same period as sulfur, (pgs 162-163)
    • Group 6A:
    • O Oxygen
    • Se Selenium
  50. 48. How is the modern periodic table arranged? (pg 157)
    elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number
  51. 49. Which category includes the majority of the elements? (pg 158)
    • Metals (80% of elements)
  52. 50. Where are the transition metals located on the periodic table? (pg 166)
  53. 51. What is the name given to the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom?(pg187)
    valence electrons
  54. 52. How many valence electrons are in an atom of arsenic? (pg 187)
    5 (group 5A)
  55. 53. How many valence electrons are in an atom of strontium? (pg 188)
    2 (group 2A)
  56. 54. What is the charge on the magnesium ion? (pg 190)
    2+
  57. 55. What does the octet rule state? (pg 188)
    When forming a compound, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.  An octet is a set of 8.
  58. 56. How many electrons can occupy a single molecular orbital? (pg 230)
    2 electrons
  59. 57. What type of ions have names ending in -ide? (pg 254)
    anions
  60. 58. What is the correct name for the  ion? (pg 254)
    nitride ion
  61. 59. When naming a transition metal ion that can have more than one common ionic charge, how is the numerical value of the charge indicated? (pgs 254-255)
    • Roman numerals in parenthesis
    • example: iron(II)
  62. 60. Magnesium is a group 2A metal. What ion does Mg typically form? (pg 253)
  63. 61. What SI unit is used to measure the number of representative particles in a substance? (pg 290)
    • Avogadro's number
    •  atoms/mol
  64. 62.Avogadro's number of representative particles is equal to what?(hint: word not number)(pg 290)
    1 mole
  65. 63. How many moles of silver atoms are in  atoms of silver? (pg291)
  66. 64. How many atoms are in 0.650 mol of platinum? (pg 292)
  67. 65. How many molecules are in 1.60 mol of H20? (pg 292)
  68. 66. What is the molar mass of ? (pg 296)
  69. 67. How many mols of calcium are there in 120 grams of calcium?(pg 299)
  70. 68. What is the molar volume of any gas at STP? (pg 300)
    22.4 Liters
  71. 69. What is the correct temperature and pressure used to define STP? (pg 300)
      (temperature)

    • 101.3 kPa  Pressure    -or-
    • 1 atm        Pressure
  72. 70. What do chemical equations represent? (pg 323)
    chemical reactions
  73. 71. What is a catalyst? (pg 323)
    a substance that speeds up chemical reactions
  74. 72. Chemical equations must be balanced to satisfy what? (pg 325)
    The law of conservation of mass
  75. 73. In a balanced chemical equation, what has to be balanced on each side of the equation? (pg 325)
    same number of atoms on each side of the equation
  76. 74. In a combustion reaction, one of the reactants is always... (pg 336)
    oxygen

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