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5 main functions of the skeletal system are:
- 1. support
- 2. protection
- 3. movement
- 4. storage
- 5. Hemopoises (blood cell formation)
What produces red and white blood cells?
red bone marrow
4 Types of bones
- 1. long
- 2. short
- 3. flat
- 4. irregular
what's the 5th kind of bone?
sesamoid (like the patella)
What is the diaphysis?
the hollow rigid section of a long bone
What is the hollow ( of diaphysis) called and what's in it?
medullary cavity filled with yellow bone marrow
What part of the bone is red bone marrow found?
epiphyses, or at the end of the bone
What is articular cartilage? What's its function?
it covers the ends of long bones. Functions like a rubber cushion
What is the name of the thin membrane covering the outer surface of bone?
What lines the medullary cavity?
What is the cancellous?
the inner layer of flat bone
What is a trabecule?
thin bony structures inside a spongy bone
Mature bone cells are called
What is the name of bone building cells?
What are osteoclasts?
bone cells that break apart bone tissue
What is cartilage made of?
How do bones start out as?
What is the epiphyseal plate?
a thin layer of cartilage between the epiphysis and diaphysis that allows for bone growth
What is the axial skeleton?
bones that make up the "axis" or center of body. Skull, spine, thorax, sternum and hyoid
What is the appendicular skeleton?
upper and lower extremities and appendages.
How many bones in the spinal column?
name the 5 parts of the spinal column
- 1. cervical
- 2. thoracic
- 3. lumbar
- 4. sacrum
- 5. coccyx
How many bones are in each of the parts of the spinal column?
- Cervical 7
- Thoracic 12
- lumbar 5
- Sacrum 5
- Coccyx 4
What is kyphosis?
the hunchback look some older adults get
How many ribs does the adult have?
What are true ribs? How many are there?
the first 7, attached to the sternum
What are false ribs? Where are they?
ribs number 8, 9 and 10. Attached to the 7th
What are floating ribs? Where are they?
ribs 11 and 12. They have no connection to the sternum
Which 3 bones make up the shoulder?
scapula, clavicle and humerus
3 types of joints
- 1. synarthrosis
- 2. Amphiarthroses
- 3. Diarthroses
What is a Synarthroses joint?
joint which fibrous connective tissue grows between the joining bones holding them close together. Like the skull bones. Also called sutures.
What is an Amphiarthroses joint?
joint where cartilage connects the joining bones. Like the joint of the pubis or the joints between the bodies of the vertebrae.
What is a Diarthroses joint?
freely moveable joints. Like most in our bodies.
List examples of joints listed.
- 1. hinge-ankle
- 2. pivot-atlas and axis to turn head
- 3. saddle-thumb and carpal joint
- 4. condyloid-radius and carpal bones
- 5. ball and socket-hip
- 6. gliding-between carpal and tarsal
What connects bones to bones?
What is the most common tumor of bone tissue?
What is osteoporosis?
bones become brittle and less dense due to mineral loss.
Bacterial infection of the bone and marrow can cause what?
Term for inflammation of the joints?
What is Osteoarthritis?
a degenerative joint disease.
What kind of fracture is it called when the bone is exposed?
compound, bone breaks through the skin
What are incomplete fractures?
Where the bone is bent, but not broken. Sometimes called greenstick fractures.
What is a comminuted fracture?
breaks that produce many fractures.
What kind of fracture is it when bone fragments are driven into each other?