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Assistive Technology - Enablingtechnology: Any item, piece of equipment, or system, whether acquiredcommercially, modified, or customized, that is commonly used to increase,maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities,or other special needs, to help them fully participate in their work andeveryday life.
(computer-supported Cooperative work) - The field of study that examines how
technology affects group interaction, and how technology can best be designed
and built to facilitate group work.
Discount Evaluation - Heuristic
evaluation is referred to as discount evaluation when 5 evaluators are used.
Empirical evidence suggests that on average 5 evaluators identify 75-80% of
Enrollment - This training of a
speaker-dependent system to recognize your voice and the way you speak
Formative Evaluation - Iterative
evaluations done during the SDLC to check that the product continues to meet
Groupware - A
class of software that helps groups of colleagues (workgroups) attached
to a computer network organize their activities. Typically, the workgroup
members are geographically dispersed.
Interstitial - Interstitial means
"in between.” On the web, it’s a
page that pops up in a separate window between the link you clicked and the
target page you expected.
Likert Scale - a type of survey
question where respondents are asked to rate the level at which they agree or
disagree with a given statement. Often 5 or 7 response levels are presented in
a visual analog scale.
Mouthstick - a device for the
physically disabled that enables them to control input through a stick they
control with their mouth.
Oversampling - Creating a more
accurate digital representation of an analog signal. In order to work with real-world signals in
the computer, analog signals are sampled some number of times per second
(frequency) and converted into digital code.
Using averaging and different algorithms, samples can be generated
between existing samples, creating more digital information for complex
signals, "smoothing out the curve" so to speak.
Phoneme - In human language,
a phoneme is the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes meaning
Quantization Error - The difference
between an analog wave and its digital representation.
Sampling - In digitizing
operations, the conversion of real-world analog signals or movements at regular
intervals into digital code.
Section 508 - Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act requires access to
electronic and information technology procured by Federal agencies. The Access
Board developed accessibility standards for the various technologies covered by
the law. These standards have been folded into the Federal government's
Slow Keys - A keyboard feature
that prevents keystrokes from registering until a key has been held down for a
certain period of time. This is extremely useful for people with motor
impairments that make it difficult to target keys accurately or that cause
- do not require tuning and can recognize limited vocabularies such as numeric
digits and a handful of words.
- require that users enunciate samples into the system in order to tune it to
their individual voices.
Speech Recognition - The ability of a
computer to understand the spoken word for the purpose of receiving commands
and data input from the speaker
Speech Synthesis - The
ability of a computer to produce "spoken" words either by splicing
together prerecorded words or by programming the computer to produce the sounds
that make up spoken words
Sticky Keys - A method of typing
where modifier keys, such as Shift, Control, Command, and Alt/Option, will
"stick" down and apply to the next keystroke, so that only one key
needs to be pressed at a time. This is extremely useful for people who have
motor impairments that make it difficult to press combinations of keys.
Summative Evaluation - Evaluations that
are done to assess the success of a finished production, such as those to
satisfy a sponsoring agency
Test - The "acid test" of true artificial intelligence, as defined by
the English scientist Alan Turing. In
the 1940s, he said "a machine has artificial intelligence when there is no
Virtual Team - They are groups of
people who interact on interdependent tasks guided by a common purpose. However, unlike conventional teams, they work
across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by
webs of communication technologies.
Severity Ratings Scale for Usability Problems
- The severity of a usability problem is a combination
- of three factors:
- -The frequency with which the problem
- occurs: Is it common or rare?
- -The impact of the problem if it
- occurs: Will it be easy or difficult for the users to overcome?
- -The persistence of the problem: Is it
- a one-time problem that users can overcome once they know about it or will
- users repeatedly be bothered by the problem?
A framework to guide evaluation
- evaluations are driven by clear goals and appropriate questions (Basili et al.,
- 1994.) The following DECIDE framework provides a checklist
- to help evaluators:
- the overall goals that the evaluation addresses.
- the specific questions to be answered.
- the evaluation paradigm and techniques to answer the questions.
- the practical issues that must be addressed, such as selecting
- how to deal with ethical issues.
- interpret, and present the data.
- -Site Structure Navigation: allows user to move along with site structure
- -Function Navigation: e.g. Sitemap links
- -Navigation: leads user to some pages directly, e.g. shortcuts & ad
- -Reference Navigation: leads user to content related to current content.
- -Dynamic Navigation: generates dynamic result pages, e.g. search form.
- -Breadcrumb Navigation: shows location of user and allows users to go back to upper level.
- -Step Navigation: shows a sequence of pages and the location, and allows users to move to
- previous, next, and other pages.
- loss--Users do not know their present Location, and find it difficult to decide
- where to look next
- Thrashing--Users are required to go to several
- locations to collect necessary information.
- Increased Mental Load--Users must
- keep track of their original goals
- Figure out where information may be located
- Determine how to get to the different
- Appears on
- every page, usually in header or footer
- site-wide access to universal content or functions
- Acts as
- anchor point for users
- global navigation
- audience-specific navigation options
And hoc Navigation:
- within-content links
Communities of Practice
- Communities of practice are formed by people
- who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human
- endeavor: In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share
- a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they
- interact regularly.
Communities of Practice: 3 Characteristics
- characteristics are crucial:
- The Domain: It has an identity defined by a shared
- domain of interest, and membership implies a commitment to the domain.
- The Community: they engage joint activities and
- discussions, help each other, and share information. The build relationships that help them learn
- from each other.
- The Practice: Members are practitioners—they develop a
- shared repertoire of resources:
- experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems
& time/space matrix; & 3 Levels of collaboration
- levels of collaboration
- communication tools send messages, files, data, or documents between
- people and hence facilitate the sharing of information. [eMail, faxing,
- voice mail, and web publishing]
- conferencing tools also facilitate the sharing of information, but in a
- more interactive way. [application sharing, video conferencing, voice
- conferencing, internet forum, chat rooms, and electronic meeting systems]
- management tools facilitate and manage group activities. [electronic
- calendars, project management systems, workflow systems, extranets, and
- social software]
Collaboration (cooperation) goals
- -Focused partnerships.
- -Lectures or demos.
- -Structured work processes.
- -Electronic commerce
- -Meeting and decision support.
- -On-line Communities
Time and Space Matrix
- Same Time/Place = face to face(classrooms)
- Different Time/Place = Asynchronous distributed (email, conferences)
- Same Time/Diff Place = Synchronous Distributed (video windows/skype)
- Same Place/Diff Time = Asynchronous interaction (coordination tools)
Virtual Teams: 3 key elements
TEAMS(network of people):
-Links (media, interactions)
-Purpose (goals, tasks)
- TECHNOLOGY(network of computer):
- -Nodes (Servers, Architecture)
- -Links (Media, Processing)
- -Applications (Modules, outputs)
Expert Reviews: Methods
- -Heuristic Evaluation
- -Guidelines review
- -Consistency inspection
- -Cognitive walkthrough
- -Metaphors of human thinking
- -Formal usability inspection
Evalutation - the process of systematically collecting data that informs us about what it is like for a user to use a product for a particular task in a certain type of environment
Evaluation is a key ingredient for a successful design. Problems are fixed before the product is shipped.
- Being an effective interaction designer requires knowing how to evaluate different
- kinds of systems at different stages of development.
Designers can’t presume that following design guidelines guarantees good usability--evaluation is needed to check that users can use the product and like it.
Command systems - recognized a few hundred words and eliminate using the mouse or keyboard for repetitive commands. This is least taxing on the computer.
Discrete voice - recognition systems are used for dictation, but require a pause between each word.
- Continuous voice - recognition understands
- natural speech without pauses and is the most process intensive. Speaker-independent continuous systems that
- can handle large vocabularies are advancing rapidly.
Natural-Language Processing Goal
- The goal of the Natural Language Processing
- (NLP) is to design and build a computer system that will analyze, understand,
- and generate languages that humans use naturally, so that eventually you can
- address your computer as though you were addressing another person.
ISO 9241 Definition of Usability
The International Standards Organization (ISO) model (ISO 9241) defines usability as measures of the following:
- Efficiency. The accuracy and
- completeness the user achieves with respect to the goals
- Effectiveness. The user effort required
- to achieve the user and domain goal.
- Satisfaction. The measure of user
- satisfaction on a number of attributes; and
- Usefulness. The measure of the value
- the user places on the product.
Categories of Disabilities
- -Motor impairments - Sticky Keys and Slow Keys, hardware
- devices such as head-mounted input devices and eye-tracking systems
- -Visual impairments - screen enlargement utilities, tactile and auditory output and text-to-speech systems.
- -Hearing impairments - visible alerts, speech-to-text systems, captioning cognitive or neurological impairments - reminder systems
Five Measurable Human Factors Central to Usability Evaluations (Schneiderman)
- -Time to learn
- -Speed of Performance
- -Rate of errors by users
- -Retention over time
- -Subjective satisfaction
Human Computer Interaction 3 Levels
- Level 1: Basic Usability
- -USE OF GUIS/POINT AND CLICK INPUT DEVICES
- -ease of use
- -ease of learning
- -error protection
- -error recovery
- -efficiency of performance
- Level 2: Collaborative, Organization, and Role-Based Interaction
- -Organizational Structure
- -Nature of Work
- -Defining Roles within an Org.
- -Customization of Processes
- -NOT one size fits all, instead, role based interaction with roles having separate authorities
- -Level 3: Individualized and Holistic Interaction
- -Ubiquitous and Invisible computing (transferring computing from general-purpose machines to special purpose tools)