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What do musicals do
tells its story using characters that express themselves with song.
Musical film was not born out of .....
- was not born out of any specific political or cultural movement (traditions of
What prevented musical performance from joining forces with cinema.
1.) Early film industry had to create a system for recording and project sound
2.)Audience perceptions – people wanted naturalism and people jumping into sound in the middle of a film was not natural.
What was the first musical to join forces with cinema and what type of musical was it
The Jazz Singer – this was a backstage musical
What are Back Stage Musicals
musicals that placed the story in a performance setting; character were singers and dancers
What type of musical came after back stage musicals and describe it
Integrated musicals-assimilated music and dancing with the action; characters could now bust into random song
What was the musical film genre born out of?
Traditions of relgions
What are the stages and process of getting a
Preproduction - 2years - planning and preparation/ making a budget
Production - months- shooting of movie
Postproduction - after shooting is done; preparing final print
Process of postproduction
- 1.) Editing
- 2.) Preparing the final print
- 3.) Bringing the film to the public
What does the producer and the director do
Producer - guides the entire process of making the movie
Director - determine and realize on the screen an artistic vision
Two way movies are made
- Studio system -controlled by a studio of people
- Independent system - controlled by a producers who is unaffiliated with a studio
What is AFFRM stand for
African-American Film Festival Releasing Movement
Who is its founder of AFFRM
What is AFFRM's Goal
Their goal is simple: to eventually release two films a year; quality independent movies from black filmmakers and aimed at black audiences t
How does distribution form the economic power core for film industry?
-Filmmakers need them to circulate their work
--Exhibitors need them to supply there screens
What are the six firms that remain the world’s
- -Warner Bros
- -Walt Disney
- -20th Centurty fox
Ho do the six major firms hold such power?
- -Large companies can best
- endure the risks of theatrical movie making
--Films are costly and most movies dont earn profits in theatrical release garner
--Why is it important that films go to ANCILLARY markets like PPV, On Demand, DVD
- Films usually dont break even or show a profit
- until it has been released on cable,satellite, and home video(PPV, on
How do Independent distributors get their films financed and exhibited?
they try to pre-sell distribution rights in order to finance then they put their flms in festivals to attract distribution attention so their films can be marketed
Why is it difficult for African-American cinema
to get financed and distributed?
Not seen as profitable because imagined not to be successful internationally
What is the distribution strategy behind I Will Follow? What ways is the film functioning as independent?
DuVernay funded the films herself
Movies on test
I will follow
- CatFish - documentary
- Upstream color - movie with pigs
- Girl fight - movie about boxer
- I will follow - black movie
- Spring breakers - party movie
How is independent cinema an alternative to
Views are encourages to see indie films as more socially engaged and formally experimental than Hollywood
Does independent cinema function as a distinct narrational mode or is it something else
- not necessarily a narrational mode like are
- cinema or CHC but a film culture
What commonalities do art cinema and independent cinema share?
- 1.) inferences on realism
- 2.) Authorship I.e personal cinema
- 3.) Animated by intellectual context of the era
What differences do art cinema and independent cinema have?
- 1.) Ic is hardly as ambiguous as art cinema
- 2.) Ic style is not nearly as challenging
- 3.)IC can seem fairly classical in its narrational approach
-How did high concept originate? What is a
more precise defiinition?
Originated in television and studio industries
1) As a form of differentiated product within the mainstream film industry
2) As a narrative that is straightforward, easily communicated and easily comprehended but ALSO marketed through
How does high concept differentiation occur
- 1)Emphasis on style post-Classical Hollywood Cinema style (reflected after WWII and rise of television)
- A.) Simplification of character and narrative B.) Strong march between image and music soundtrack
- 2.) Integration of marketing and merchandising
- a.Star Power
- b.Star Persona
- c.Timeliness of the subject matter
What were criticisms of high concept (3 things)?
- 1.) Idea was actually "low" because the idea is so low it can be summarized in a single sentence.
- 2.) Speaks to a potential bankruptcy of creativity in Hollywood
3.) The films rely heavily on the replication and combination of previously successful Hollywood films
What was the relationship between economics and high concept?
- 1) Production practices in film industry are influenced by shifts in
- Hollywood's industrial structure such
- a.Conglomeration of the industry, the rise of television, the new marketing
- methods, changing distribution strategies
- 2)As the forces forming the mode of production change over time, so
- too do the look and sound of the film product
- 3)High concept film is designed to maximize marketability and
- consequently, the economic potential at the box office
4)"The look, the hook, and the book"
What’s “the look, the hook and the book”?
high-concept films marketing guidelines
What were two major shifts after the invention of the movies?
- 1.) individual owners of small production companies to med. firms
- 2.)From med. companies to large
How was the vertical organizational structure of the studios challenged by the independent producers?
When the government broke up the monopoly the independents had access to movie theaters
What are the rules governing the arranging of
There are none
What’s the difference between direct and
- Direct cost - everything from art direction to cinematography
- Indirect cost - releasing prints,marketing.
--What’s the current way that budgeting is done in the independent system?
cost are categorized; producer or member of his team prepares the budget
What are the responsibilites for those in charge of promotion and marketing?
- -Determine the release date
- -Determine the number of screens the film will be on
What are the kinds of models for distributing
and exhibiting a movie?
- Exclusive and limited releases - first run showing in major cities
- Key city release - a secondtire release that measure public response
What is the production system in Hollywood an amalgam (a “mixture”) of?
- 1.) a studio system
- 2.)independent production companies
What did studio system mean in the past? What does it mean now?
Past : a group of vertically integrated, with large numbers of contract employees.
Today: there is no system and the studio exist to make and release movies
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