Acquired Immunodeficiency

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Acquired Immunodeficiency
2013-12-10 15:04:14
Acquired Immunodeficiency
Acquired Immunodeficiency
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  1. What are the 3 causes for secondary immunodeficiency?
    Iatronic - which is brought on by medical tx.

    Disorders like malnutrition, genetic defect,etc.

    Primary infections like HIV/AIDS
  2. What leads to genomic diversity with HIV what does it do?
    Reverse transcriptase "retrovirus"

    It converts RNA into viral DNA

    Now the viral DNA can insert itself into host cell DNA
  3. What is provirus
    Integrated viral DNA
  4. What encourages new virus production

    Rev stimulates translation of gag and env

    These proteins release viral RNA
  5. What is the virology of the HIV
    It is a lentivirus & is sRNA genome
  6. In the cell mediated response, what does the cytotoxic T cells do?
    They kill virus infected cell through interaction with MHC class I

    *Nef gene (from HIV) inhibits expression of MHC clas I
  7. Can the initial immune response to HIV reduce viral replication?

    But does not eliminate
  8. When are CD4 cells low?
    When the viral load is at its highest
  9. What depletes the CD4 cells?
    Cytotoxic T cells
  10. What cells are affected by HIV
    Helper T Cells mostly affected by reducing CD4+ cells

    *Lack of T cell help for cell mediated immunity & Signals to B cells are affected
  11. What is the eclipse phase?
    7-10 days post exposure
  12. What type of cells are included in the CD4+ cells?
    T-cells, mono's, macrophages, dendritic, microglial brain cells.
  13. What is the CDC requirement for positive identification of HIV
    • CD4 counts
    • Certain bacterial infections
    • Certain clinical conditions

    • Which is then divided into Nine groups:
    • A,B,&C each with three subgroups.
  14. What is the WHO requiremtn for positive identification of HIV
    4 levels of clinical staging:

    Based on clinical appearance of the patient (when lab tests are unavailable)
  15. 3 aspects for lab ident in lab
    Host Ab levels

    Host CD4 and T cell coutns

    Virus detection
  16. What is the window period of false negatives for antibodies and antigens
    Ab - 30 days

    Ag - 15 days

    Ag by nucleic acid testing is 12 days
  17. CDC ident with CD4+ / T cells counts is?
    CD4+ T cells <200uL 

    (normal range is 500-1500)

    FLOW used
  18. What HIV screenig tests are used
    • ELISA - sensitive & specific
    • *Detects Ab's against viral lysates

    *CDC: a positive ELISA must be confirmed by a second and 3rd ELISA. If positive then a Western Blot is confirmatory***
  19. What is the principle of the Western blot
    Viral particls are separated then trenasferred onto a nicrocellulose paper then incubated with pt serum.

    Can be visualized by EIA or biotin avidin

    CDC interpretation: bands at 2 of the following 3 locations ⇨ p24, gp41, gp120/160
  20. What test is used to detect the virus itself
    Sanwhich immunoassay

    *p24 increased at 7-20 days post inf.
  21. Other tests used
    • HIV genotyping 
    • RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase and real time)