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In terms of organization, how do qualitative research reports differ from quantitative research reports?
Introduction explains why a particular group merits study, RQ more broad, Results & Discussion more integrated
most common in qualitative.
- accurate representation of what was experienced
- (people do X)
- 3rd person details
- research has final say on final write up.
- Researcher present (1st person)
- researcher shares their surprises
- Chronological detail
- event by event (fragmented)
- 1st person
Provide a beginning familiarity with a topic--new interest
- Explains the communication process.
Casual/Functional explanation purpose
To explain things.
Explaining why political ad A is more persuasive than political ad B
Humans are capable of reflectivity and their action is purposive. Human action is meaning-making.
Semantic relationships, No R, Nomothetic
Local knowledge, heuristic framework
Use critical reflection that can produce knowledge.
An investigation of a "specific, unique, bounded system." Think organization, family, etc
The more informed you are, the more astute your observations are likely to be.
participants' lack of awearness that they are being observed.
Participants know that you're observing them
observations over participating. Participants know the role, but researcher doesn't participate
Researcher neither participates nor has participants aware of the research study
The person who you need to get the authorization from.
They control the "access gate" that determines whether or not you can "pass through."
Someone who takes interest in project and opens doors for you, introducing you to others in the group.
People who provide quality information about the group
The researcher is interested in intentionally seeking out people, activities or scenes that will add a different, contrasting perspective on the phenomenon.
typical case sampling
seeking a participant that is typical and provide an in-depth description of that case. Think average member of group
Theoretical construct sampling
Useful sampling strategy for participant-observation researchers. Select participants or cases based on relevance to phenomenon that interests you
Critical case sampling
One that embodies in a dramatic way characteristics or features that are important in understanding the phenomenon under study
Refers to the use of multiple kinds of data and/or multiple methods in studying a given phenomenon.
when variation is accounted for and understood--finding more data would not add additional support
interaction in which the interviewer has a general plan of inquiry but not a specific set of questions that must be asked using specific words.
describes the meaning of the lived experience for several individuals about a concept or the phenomenon
discovering how the participants understand their lives--the researchers interpretation should not be removed from the research process
series of questions with a limited set of response categories
list of questions researcher wants answered
describe a phenomenon using own words
asking informants how they structure different domains of knowledge.
"what kind of games can you play at recess?"
asking informant to web together different concepts. "what is the difference between a fight and an argument?"
clarifying the purpose of the interviews and the concepts to be explored
laying out the processes through which you'll accomplish your purpose, including a consideration of the ethical dimension
assessing the trustworthiness of the materials
unstructured or semistructured protocol that asks informants for stories
critical paradigm-equalize power between interviewer and interviewee
Steps of coding
- 1. determine questions
- 2. unitize textual data (broken down into parts)
- 3. develop coding categories
- 4. plugging holes
- 5. checking (member checks)
negative case analysis
process in which researcher "tests" categories against new data--searching for units that are deviant
represent the body of the data
Developmental Research Sequence
Used to understand semantic relationships and rules of a given speech community
enthography/interpretive scholars interested in language use
Grounded theory develpment
generate or discover a theory, an abstract analytical schema of a phenomenon that relates to a particular situation