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Erickson's Stages of Early Psychosocial Development
- Infancy - basic trust vs. mistrust
- 1-3 yrs - autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- 3-5 yrs - initiative vs. guilt
Basic trust vs. mistrust
with proper balance of trust and mistrust, an infant can acquire hope
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
A blend of autonomy, shame, and doubt gives rise to will, the knowledge that, within limits, they can act on their world intentionally.
Initiative versus Guilt
Purpose is achieved with a balance between individual initiative and a willingness to cooperate with others.
Many human behaviors represent successful adaptation to the environment.
children who form an enduring socioemotional relationship are more likely to survive
Bowlby's 4 phases of Attachment
- Attachment in the making
- True Attachment
- Reciprocal relationships
- Birth to 6-8 weeks
- infants learn to recognize mother by smell and sound
- baby's behaviors provoke evolutionary behaviors from parents to foster growing attachment
Attachment in the making
- 6-8 weeks - 6-8 months
- babies behave differently with people they know vs. people they don't know
- more easily consoled and laugh more with primary care giver
- 6-8 months - 18 months
- by 7 or 8 months babies have normally singled out a favorite care giver
- infant has a mental reperesentation of the mother, an understanding she will be there to meet the baby's needs
- 18 months+
- infants growing language and cognitive skills makes it easier for them to actually take part in their relationship
- cope with separation more effectively
- Fathers spend far less time in caregiving tasks and play differently than mothers
- Fathers are preferred for play, mothers for comfort.
Forms of attachment
- Secure Attachment
- Avoidant Attachment
- Resistant Attachment
- Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment
- Experiment by Mary Ainsworth studying infants attachment to their mothers.
- Observes separation and reunion with mothers.
- "I missed you terribly, I'm delighted to see you, but now that all is well, I'll get back to what I'm doing."
60-65% of American babies
- "You left me again. I always have to take care of myself!"
- One of 3 insecure attachments.
- 20% of American babies
- "Why do you do this? I need you desparately and yet you just leave me without warning. I get so angry when you're like this."
- Form of insecure attachment.
- 10-15% of American babies
Disorganized (disoriented) Attachment
- "What's happening? I want you to be here, but you left and now you're back. I don't get what's going on!"
- Form of insecure attachment.
- 5-10% of American babies
Oberves mother-child interaction in the home and rates attachment based on behaviors
Other notes on Attachment
- Babies with secure attachment are more likely to report being close with parents throughout childhood and adolescense.
- Babies with insecure attachments are not.
- Stressful life events can also trigger insecure attachments as well.
Hallmarks of secure attachment
- quickly responding to cries
- responding appropriately
- responding predictably
Internal Working Model
set of expectations about parents' general availability and resposiveness and in times of stress
- insecurely attached babies looked longer at mother who returned
- securely attached babies looked longer at mother who didn't
Research studies about attachment:
- Longitudinal study about infants showed what?
- Kibbutz study in Israel showed what about secure attachment?
- Study in the Netherlands showed that secure attachments were best formed when the mother had what?
- Babies in Romania were more likely to have secure attachments when in the orphanages?
- Infants at 12 months were more likely to have a secure attachment when parents responded predictably and responsibly at 3 months.
- Infants who had no one to console them when they were upset in the middle of the night were less likely to develop secure attachments.
- 3 months of training of infants cues and needs.
- When the caregiver was emotionally involved with the child.
When care givers respond intermittenly or after a while, what happens?
The baby has trouble fostering trust and confidence so it has trouble developing a secure attachment.
How does temperament effect attachment?
Infants with difficult temperament are less likely to development a secure attachment, especially when they have a traditional, rigid mother rather than one who is flexible and accepting.
Brief training can help mothers to respond more effectively.
Gender differences in play
- Given the opportunity, children will pick play partners of the same sex
- Children often resist parents' urges to play with the opposite sex
- Children prefer the same sex even when playing neutral activities like tag
Why would children rather play with the same sex?
- 1. Boys prefer rougher play while girls prefer a less competive style
- 2. Girls interactions are enabling, while boys are constricting.
actions and remarks support others
actions are competitve where one person tries to come out as the winner by threatening or exagerating
beliefs and images about males and females that may or may not be true
set of cultural guidelines as to how a person should behave
gender neutral world
ends at about 18 months, when children look longer at pictures of toys relating to their gender
gender world by 4
- children translate gender into behaviors:
- - boys play football; girls play hopscotch
- - girls bake cookies; boys take out the trash
- - boys are more aggressive physically; girls are verbally
Actual differences between girls and boys
- Men are larger and stronger and are more active from birth
- women have a lower mortality rate and are less susceptible to stress and disease
Intellectual and psychosocial differences in men and women
- Verbal ability
- Spatial ability
- Social influence
- Emotional sensitivity
Social roles for men and women
- more strenuous
- more cooperation
- often require travel
- less demanding
- more solitary
- takes place closer to home
girls have larger vocabularies and are able to read, write and spell better than boys and are less likely to stutter
men score higher on tests but women often get higher grades in math courses
males typically respond faster and more accurately than women, and these differences are observed in infancy
- girls are more likely to take direction from adults and are more readily influenced by groups
- this may be because girls value group harmony more than boys
- males have been observed by all cultures as more aggressive
- girls resort to relational aggression
intentionally trying to hurt others relationships by calling names, spreading rumors, or ignoring
girls are better at expressing and interpreting emotions than boys
- children learn their gender type by simply watching
- Bandura and Mischel perfected this theory
How parents treat them
parents normally treat son and daughters the same, however behaviors are treated differently
Fathers and gender
- fathers are more likely to treat sons and daughters differently by punishing sons more but accepting dependence in daughters
- mothers respond based on individual needs
sense of oneself as male or female