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What are most buffers made of?
Conjugate acids and bases
Why do buffers use conjugate pairs?
Le Chatelier's principle
Find the pH of any acid base pair
Define equivalence point.
- Moles of added OH- equals original moles of H+
- pH of 7
When the indicator changes colors.
Define the Qsp of an ionic solute.
- since the [MpXq] is constant (because it's a solid) you can multiply the Qc by [solid] to get the Qsp
- At equilibrium Qsp=Ksp
What does Ksp tell us?
The higher the Ksp the more soluble the substance
What is a complex ion?
A central metal ion covalently bonded to two or more anions or molecules.
What is a ligand?
The anions or molecules bonded to the central metal ion of a complex ion.
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