Chapter 15 theory, pathology, & procedures

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Chapter 15 theory, pathology, & procedures
2013-12-10 18:03:27
IBS 102

chapter 15
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  1. chemical messengers secreted into the blood stream by the endocrine system
  2. tiny gland located behind the optic nerve in the cranial cavity
    pituitary gland / hypophysis
  3. a structure that attaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus directly superior to it in the brain
  4. "master gland"
    pituitary gland / hypophysis
  5. composed of glandular tissue and secretes hormones in response to stimulation by the hypothalamus
    anterior lobe / adenohypophysis
  6. sends hormones through blood vessels, which cause the adenohypophysis either to release or to inhibit the release of specific hormones
  7. composed of nervous tissue. The two hormones released by this lobe are antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OT)
    posterior lobe / neurohypophysis
  8. stimulates the adrenal cortex to release steriods
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  9. stimulates the development of gametes in the respective sexes
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  10. stimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of sex hormones in both the male and the female
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  11. stimulates production of reproductive cells in the male
    interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
  12. includes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
    gonadotropic hormones
  13. stimulates growth of long bones and skeletal muscles; converts proteins to glucose
    growth hormone (GH) / human growth hormone (hGH) / somatotropin hormone (STH)
  14. stimulates milk production in the breast
    prolactin (PRL) / lactogenic hormone
  15. stimulates thyroid to release two other thyroid hormones
    thyrotropin / thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  16. stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water and return it to circulation; is also a vasoconstrictor, resulting in higher blood pressure
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH) / vasopressin
  17. stimulates the muscles of the uterus during the delivery of an infant and the muscles surrounding the mammary ducts to contract, releasing milk
    oxytocin (OT)
  18. regulates the metabolism of the body and normal growth and development, and controls the amount of calcium (Ca) deposited into the bones
    thyroid gland
  19. released by the anterior pituitary gland, causes the thyroid to release T3 and T4
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  20. regulates the amount of calcium in the bloodstream
  21. increases cell metabolism
    • tetraiodothyronine / thyroxine (T4)
    • triiodothyronine (T3)
  22. four small glands located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland in the neck. they secrete PTH in response to a low level of calcium in the blood
  23. external portion of the adrenal gland, secretes hormones that are called steriods
    adrenal cortex
  24. internal portion of the adrenal gland, produces sympathomimetic hormones that stimulate fight-or-flight response to stress
    adrenal medulla
  25. respond to stress; have antiinflammatory properties
  26. regulate blood volume, blood pressure, and electrolytes
  27. responsible for secondary sex characteristics
    sex hormones
  28. dilates arteries and increases production of urine, blood pressure, and cardiac rate. acts as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system
  29. dilates bronchi, increases heart rate, raises blood pressure, dilates pupils, and elevates blood sugar levels
    epinephrine / adrenaline
  30. increases heart rate and blood pressure and elevates blood sugar levels for energy use
    norepinephrine / noradrenaline
  31. located inferior and posterior to the stomach, it's a gland with both exocrine and endocrine functions
  32. produce the hormone glucagon that increases the level of glucose in the blood when levels are low
    alpha cells
  33. secrete insulin that decreases the level of glucose in the blood when levels are high
    beta cells
  34. releases a hormone called thymosin that is responsible for stimulating key cells in the immune response
    thymus gland
  35. located in the center of the brain, functions to secrete hormone melatonin
    pineal body
  36. hormone thought to be responsible for inducing sleep
  37. lack of appetite
  38. presence of  glucose in the urine
    glycosuria / glucosuria
  39. an excessive intake of food. may be used to describe overeating
  40. excessive glucose in the blood
  41. presence of ketones in the urine
  42. abnormal sensation, such as prickling
  43. condition of excessive thirst
  44. condition of excessive appetite
  45. condition of excessive urination
  46. a condition in which an individual's blood glucose level is higher than normal, but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
  47. continuous muscle spasms
  48. enlargement of the thyroid gland, not due to a tumor
  49. excessive thyroid hormone production
    hyperthyroidism / thyrotoxicosis
  50. most common form of hyperthyroidism
    Graves' disease
  51. extreme form of hyperthyroidism; life-threatening
    thyroid storm / thyroid crisis
  52. deficient thyroid hormone production
  53. hypothyroidism occurring in childhood
  54. inflammation of the thyroid
  55. chronic autoimmune form of thyroiditis
    Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  56. group of metabolic disorders characterized by high glucose levels that result from inadequate amounts of insulin, resistance to insulin, or a combination of both
    diabetes mellitus (DM)
  57. total lack of insulin production resulting in glycosuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, blurred vision, fatigue, and frequent infections
    type 1 diabetes / insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) / juvenile diabetes
  58. deficient insulin production, with symptoms similar to type 1 diabetes.
    type 2 diabetes / non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
  59. condition of deficient sugar in the blood.
  60. condition of excessive sugar in the blood
  61. oversecretion of insulin; seen in some newborns of diabetic mothers. causes severe hypoglycemia
  62. the hypersecretion of somatotropin from adenohypophysis during adulthood; leads to an enlargement of the extrememties, jaw, nose, and forehead
  63. hypersecretion of somatotropin from adenohypophysis that occurs in childhood
    pituitary gigantism
  64. excessive secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex causes symptoms of obesity, leukocytosis, hirsutism (excessive hairiness), hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and muscle wasting
    Cushing's syndrome
  65. deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), whihc causes the patient to excrete large quantities of urine (polyuria) and exhibit excessive thirst (polydipsia)
    diabetes insipidus
  66. somatotropin deficiency due to dysfunction of the adenohypophysis during childhood resulting in dwarfism
    growth hormone deficiency
  67. overproduction of parathyroid hormone; symptoms include polyuria, hypercalcemia, hypertension, and kidney stones
  68. deficient parathyroid hormone production results in tetany, hypocalcemia, irritability, and muscle cramps
  69. deficiency or lack of all pituitary hormones causing hypotension, weight loss. weakness
  70. bilateral presence of numerous cyst, caused by a hormonal abnormality leading to the secretion of androgens
    polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  71. insufficient secretion of adrenal cortisol from the adrenal cortex is manifested by gastric complains, hypotension, dehydration, fatigue, and hyperpigmentation  of skin and mucous membranes
    primary adrenocrotical insufficiency / Addison's disease
  72. genetic condition of rapid aging
    progeria / Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS)
  73. oversecretion of ADH from teh neurohypophysis leading to severe hyponatremia and the inability to excrete diluted urine
    syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
  74. accumulation of adipose tissue in specific body areas
  75. a condition of patients who are 50% to 100% over their ideal body weight.
    morbid obesity
  76. used to measure the relationship between a person's height and weight to determine obesity
  77. inherited disorder of the exocrine glands resulting in abnormal, thick secretions of mucus that causes COPD
    cystic fibrosis (CF)
  78. condition of deficient water in the body
  79. excessive cholesterol, a waxy substance, in the blood
  80. excessive fat in the blood
  81. condition of deficient calcium (Ca) in the blood
  82. condition of excessive calcium (Ca) in the blood
  83. condition of deficient potassium (K) in the blood.
  84. condition of excessive potassium (K) in the blood
  85. condition of deficient sodium (Na) in the blood
  86. condition of excessive sodium (Na) in the blood
  87. deficient volume of circulating blood
  88. excessive amount of ketone acids in the bloodsteam
  89. a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is responsible for converting phenylalanine, found in certain foods, into tyrosine. failure to treat will lead to brain damage and mental retardation
    phenylketonuria (PKU)
  90. a fatal genetic disorder in which lipids accumulate in the tissues and brain due to an enzyme deficiency
    Tay-Sachs disease
  91. usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla
  92. most common type of pituitary tumor. causes the pituitary to oversecrete prolactin
  93. noncancerous tumor of epithelial origin that is often associated with myasthenia gravis
  94. pancreatic cancer. fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US
    islet cell carcinoma
  95. rare cancer of the thymus gland
    malignant thymoma
  96. the most common types of thyroid carcinoma are follicular and papillary. both have high 5-year survival rates
    thyroid carcinoma
  97. measure of average blood glucose during a 3-month time span. used to monitor response to diabetes treatment
    A1c / glycosylated hemoglobin / HbA1c
  98. after a period of fasting, blood is drawn
    fasting plasma glucose (FPG) / fasting blood sugar (FBS)
  99. measure the amount of ADH, cortisol, growth hormone, or parathyroid hormone in the blood
    hormone tests
  100. blood test to measure the body's response to a concentrated glucose solution
    oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  101. nuclear medicine tests used to tag and detect hormones in the blood through the use of radionuclides
    radioimmunoassay studies (RIA)
  102. blood tests done to asses T3, T4, and calcitonin.
    thyroid function tests (TFTs)
  103. measures the amount of calcium in the blood
    total calcium
  104. used as a screen for or to monitor diabetes mellitus; a urine specimen is tested for the presence of glucose
    urine glucose
  105. test to detect presence of ketones in a urine specimen
    urine ketones
  106. bilateral removal of the adrenal glands to reduce excess hormone secretion
  107. suturing the adrenal gland
  108. the recording of the pancreas through the used of an endoscope (duodenoscope) and a contrast medium
    endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP)
  109. excision of all or part of the pancreas to remove a tumor or to treat an intractable inflammation of the pancreas
  110. excision of the head of the pancreas together with the duodenum. used to treat pancreatic cancer
    pancreatoduodenectomy / Whipple procedure
  111. cutting a stone from the pancreas
  112. removal of the parathyroid gland, usually to treat hyperparathyroidism
  113. cutting of the pineal body
  114. excision of the pituitary gland
    pituitectomy / pituitarectomy
  115. removal of all or part of the thyroid gland to treat goiter, tumors, or hyperthyroidism that does not respond to medication
  116. viewing of the thyroid gland