attribution are explanations that we assign to behavior. Inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own.
- occurs when we explain a person's behavior in terms of an internal trait the person posses
fundamental attribution error
: over estimate/ under estimate when describing the behavior of others, we tend to over estimate the rate of dis-positional causes & under estimate the role of situational causes. The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or understanding the effects of external situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
blaming the victim
- the tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somehow caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
- the tendency to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen or predicted the out come of an event.
- the assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
actor observer bias
- we tend to attribute our own behavior to situational causes when attributing the behavior of others to dispostional causes
Attributions by introductory psych students - questionnaire after test asking if its fair & why did well internal did poorly.
- Self-Serving Bias - we tend to attribute our success to dispostional causes and attributes our failure to situational causes.
- People are motivated to not think of negative biases towards self. The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
- Unrealistic Optimism - studies that give list of % what would happen. Largely American & Canadian
- Japanese Self-Efacing Bias - people tend to attribute their success to situational causes and attributes their failures to dispostional causes