English Final Exam

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English Final Exam
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English Final Exam Rhetoric for Contemporary Students
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  1. Why did the ancients start with the Fable and the Tale progymnasmatas when they taught rhetoric?
    They began with exercises that required the simplest composing skill, adding on to those skills to build up to more difficult tasks.
  2. Which of the following is/are true statement(s) about the role of rhetorical exchange in American democracy?
    Americans should utilize rhetorical exchange as a way to make important decisions in their communities, so that rhetorical exchange is necessary to the quality of American democracy.
  3. What does participation in productive argument require?
    Each party is willing that their beliefs may change during the exchange.
  4. What are the three types of intrinsic proofs, according to Aristotle?
    ethos, pathos, logos
  5. True or False.
    In his campaign for the presidential election, the former governor's advertisements focused on portraying his good standing with the community leaders, his faithfulness as a husband, and his superior parenting skills as a father. This is an example of an intrinsic proof, specifically an ethical proof or "ethos."
    True
  6. True or False.
    Rhetors seldom argue from a simple list of facts.
    True
  7. True or False.
    In her speech, Susie used facts from a research study done on the negative effects of alcohol on the human liver as a proof to support her proposition that prohibition of alcohol should be reinstated as a federal law. This is an example of an intrinsic proof.
    False
  8. True or False.
    Ancient rhetoricians believed that language, or words, represent thoughts and clearly convey the thinking of one person to another.
    False
  9. True or False.
    Because ideologies construct the image you have of your "self," or your identity, a person's ideology cannot be changed.
    False
  10. A rhetorical situation in which the people who are involved disagree about something; also "proof".
    Argument
  11. A fictional story meant to teach a moral lesson.
    Fable
  12. An interpretive framework used to make sense of an array of data or knowledge; also "ideology".
    Network of Interpretation
  13. The context of a rhetorical act; minimally made up of a rhetor, an issue, and an audience.
    Rhetorical Situation
  14. Proof that is found in the issue or the case.
    Logical proof (logos)
  15. Put the parts of a fully-developed Chreia (progymnasmata) in sequential order, as suggested by the textbook.
    • Step 1G. Encomium, or praise for author
    • Step 2D. Paraphrase of Saying
    • Step 3B. Causes/Reasons for Saying
    • Step 4H. Contrast
    • Step 5C. Comparison
    • Step 6E. Example
    • Step 7A. Testimony
    • Step 8F. Epilogue
  16. When applying kairos to a rhetorical situation, a rhetor selects the most appropriate argument, based on __________.
    the audience's opinions and the timeliness or urgency of the issue.
  17. True or False.
    Amplification can help a rhetor make an argument more relevant or up-to-date.
    True
  18. Which of the following statements is/are true about how kairotic analysis prepares the rhetor to discuss an issue?
    • a. Kairotic analysis will illuminate which communities' interests are at stake in these issues.
    • b. Kairotic analysis readies a rhetor to speak to the power dynamics at work in an issue.
    • c. Kairotic analysis helps align the rhetor's arguments with the needs and values of the audience.
  19. Kairos is a "window" of time during which rhetorical action (or discourse) is most advantageous. Rhetorical situation is the context of rhetorical action (or discourse), minimally made up of the rhetor, the issue, and the audience. Given these two definitions, what is ONE relationship between kairos and rhetorical situation?
    Kairos identifies the timeliness of a conjunction of rhetor, issue, and audience that make up a rhetorical situation.
  20. True or False.
    Students use the Tale as progymnasmata to practice "bare" narrative structure; students use the Chreia as progymnasmata to practice modifying a narrative for a particular rhetorical situation (amplifying).
    True
  21. True or False.
    Students use Chreia as progymnasmata, or writing exercises, to practice modifying their writing to meet situational constraints (amplification).
    True
  22. True or False.
    Kairos, as a means of invention, creates a heuristic specific to the issue's relevancy in time, community, and place.
    True
  23. True or False.
    Amplification, modifying arguments to meet situational constraints of a particular rhetorical situation, is the practical application of kairos, which identifies the arguments that are suitable for a particular rhetorical situation.
    True
  24. Greek term meaning the right time, opportunity, occasion, or season.
    Kairos
  25. A discourse that praises someone or something.
    Encomium
  26. A progymnasmata in which the rhetor elaborates on a famous event or saying; also a brief saying always attributed to a specific person.
    Chreia
  27. Any system of investigating issues.
    Heuristic
  28. The ancient art of saying a great deal about very little.
    Amplification
  29. Any well-known saying or bit of community wisdom; a brief saying NOT attributed to a specific person.
    Proverb
  30. Any statement or bit of knowledge commonly shared among an audience or community.
    Commonplace
  31. The context of a rhetorical act; minimally made up of a rhetor, an issue, and an audience.
    Rhetorical Situation
  32. When applying kairos to a rhetorical situation, a rhetor selects the most appropriate argument, based on __________.
    the audience's opinions and the timeliness or urgency of the issue.
  33. Which of the following statements is/are true explanations of how using a heuristic can help you develop copia (writing strategies)?
    A heuristic can identify the available arguments and help determine what copia (writing strategies) will be most effective in presenting those arguments.
  34. True or False.
    Ancient rhetoricians taught the Chreia and the Tale progymnasmatas to their students at the beginning of their studies because they hoped the moral components would influence their students to become ethical citizens who would practice rhetoric responsibly.
    True
  35. True or False.
    Amplification can help a rhetor make an argument more relevant or up-to-date.
    True
  36. A rhetor, who is using kairos as a strategy, will debate an issue only when the issue is "hot" and __________.
    an interested audience exists.
  37. Put the parts of a fully developed Common-place (progymnasmata) in sequential order, as suggested by the textbook.
    • Step 1E. Prologue
    • Step 2G. Contrary
    • Step 3H. Exposition
    • Step 4A. Comparison
    • Step 5F. Intention/Attack
    • Step 6D. Digression
    • Step 7B. Rejection of Pity
    • Step 8C. Reminder of relevant topics
  38. A common topic that requires rhetors to approach an issue with questions about the chance of change, now or in the future.
    Possibility
  39. A common topic that requires rhetors to approach an issue with comparative questions of size, magnitude, and value.
    Degree
  40. A common topic that requires rhetors to approach an issue with educated guesses about existence and extent of existence.
    Conjecture
  41. Means of invention useful for developing arguments drawn from specific arts such as politics or ethics.
    Special Topics
  42. If a rhetor wants to argue that ACDC is the greatest heavy metal band of all time, she will most likely use the common topic of__________ as an invention strategy.
    Degree
  43. Rhetors may need a great deal of specific knowledge to create arguments in areas such as politics, ethics, or law. When rhetors generate arguments in these areas, what topics do they need to employ as a means of invention?
    Special Topics
  44. True or False.
    Commonplaces, statements that circulate within ideologies, do NOT include stereotypes or clichŽs.
    False
  45. If a rhetor wants to argue that it is possible that humans will live on Mars in the future, she will most likely use the common topic of __________ as an invention strategy.
    Possibility
  46. True or False.
    The common-place progymnasmata is a natural extension of the chreia progymnasmata, in which students practice amplification of a common or well-known saying, because students are extending their use of amplification by learning to elaborate on the moral quality of a commonly held belief.
    True
  47. In order to use a commonplace as means of invention, a rhetor would begin his argument with a statement that the audience could assume is true, or, in other words, begin with a commonplace as a ____________.
    Major premise
  48. Epideictic topics are appropriate for use in a courtroom or in legal matters.
    False
  49. If a rhetor wants to argue that coffee is a better stimulant than alcohol for generating intellectual conversation, what commonplace might he employ in his conjecture?
    Alcohol consumption can easily reach destructive levels, undermining productivity and rational decision-making.
  50. Which of the following is/are true statement(s) about why is it important, as a rhetor, to understand the use of commonplaces in a rhetorical argument?
    • a. Because commonplaces can be used major premises for arguments.
    • b. Because commonplaces can persuade others to join the community and accept its commitments.
    • c. Because commonplaces have heuristic potential since they give rise to a supply of proofs.
  51. In rhetoric, the power of an ideology is measured by the degree of influence it has over groups of people. Ideologies that are subscribed to by many people are called "dominant" or "hegemonic;" ideologies subscribed to by smaller groups of people are called ____________.
    Subordinate or minority
  52. Stylistic choices, such as verb tense and verb voice, affect a rhetor's invented ethos. Which verb voice construction tends to increase rhetorical distance, allows the rhetor to avoid taking responsibility for his statements or disguise his ignorance, and may damage the audience's estimate of the rhetor's intelligence?
    Passive
  53. True or False.
    When a rhetor has a strong opinion or attitude about the issue, and the rhetorical situation allows for a more intimate rhetorical distance, he should remain neutral as possible, expressing neither a supporting nor rejecting attitude.
    False
  54. In an effort to make her report sound more formal, a student in College Writing I uses the thesaurus to look up several big words with lots of syllables. Then she substitutes the longer words for her own shorter, more concise words. This will likely result in __________.
    making her meaning more obscure
  55. What is ONE example of how a rhetor, through self-characterization (ethical proofs), can portray himself as possessing good moral character?
    By extolling the character's merits or virtues
  56. True or False.
    A character progymnasmata is an exercise in which the writer imitates a proposed person.
    True
  57. What is ONE example of how a rhetor, through self-characterization (ethical proofs), can portray himself as well-informed?
    By discussing proofs from both sides of the issue
  58. What is the most influential style element in establishing voice and rhetorical distance?
    Grammatical Person
  59. Under what circumstances is it most important to use ethical proofs in an argument (i.e., that the rhetor's good character be established)?
    When the facts of the issue are in doubt or do not have a clear interpretation
  60. A rhetor's way of life or reputation in the relevant community; also "ethos;" also a progymnasmata.
    Character
  61. Feature of English; indicates who is speaking or writing, and/or the relation of the user to hearers/readers and/or issues.
    Grammatical Person
  62. Feature of English; allows user to identify the subject with an actor in the sentence or to substitute some other word int he subject position.
    Verb Voice
  63. A rhetorical stance that creates less identification with the audience and less persuasive potential
    Formal Distance
  64. Dimension of situated ethos; the position of the rhetor to influence the ideology of participants in a rhetorical act.
    Situational
  65. Stylistic choices, such as verb tense and verb voice, affect a rhetor's invented ethos. Which verb tense tends to decrease rhetorical distance, gives an audience a sense of participation in the events that are occurring, and evokes a sense of immediacy?
    Present tense
  66. Because rhetoric is embedded in social situations, the relative social standing of participants in a rhetorical situation (situated ethos) can affect a rhetor's persuasiveness (invented ethos). What are the three major dimensions of situated ethos in any rhetorical situation?
    interpersonal, attitudinal, situational
  67. A progymnasmata that discusses the attributes or appearance of something or someone.
    Description
  68. A figure in which a rhetor creates a vivid scene.
    Enaregia
  69. Language that respects or glorifies.
    Honorific Language
  70. Greek term for emotions or passions
    Pathos
  71. Language that disparages or downplays
    Pejorative Language
  72. Besides pitiful, what does "pathetic" mean?
    The arousal or expression of emotions
  73. Which of the following is/are true attitudes that audience members may hold about a rhetor's ethos?
    • a. They may be hostile
    • b. They may be accepting
    • c. They may be indifferent
  74. True or False.
    The description progymnasmata is an exercise in enargeia (vivid description of events).
    True
  75. Put the parts of Arrangement in sequential order, as suggested by the textbook.
    • Step 1F. Exordium
    • Step 2C. Narrative
    • Step 3E. Partition
    • Step 4A. Confirmation
    • Step 5D. Refutation
    • Step 6B. Peroration
  76. True or False.
    In the confirmation, the weakest arguments should appear last
    False
  77. As we learned in Chapter 1, kairos is a temporal concept, meaning that it concerns WHEN to marshal a proof. But, as we learn in Chapter 9, it also has a spatial dimension, meaning that it concerns WHERE a proof is placed. What modern term best represents the idea of kairos's spatial dimension?
    Arrangement
  78. Which of the following is/are true type(s) of peroration?
    • a. Summarize
    • b. Make emotional appeals
    • c. Enhance ethos
  79. True or false.
    Of the three types of perorations, a rhetor should concentrate his or her energies on emotional appeals or enhancing ethos, when she chooses to include them, rather than on summarization.
    True
  80. True or False.
    Not every argument requires a partition; if only one point is to be made, a narrative will suffice.
    True
  81. The part of a discourse that elaborates arguments in support of a rhetor's position.
    Confirmation
  82. May summarize, arouse emotions, or enhance the rhetor's ethos; the final part of a discourse.
    Peroration
  83. States the issue and may supply a history of the issue; second part of a discourse.
    Narrative
  84. The first part of a discourse (Latin).
    Exordium
  85. A rhetor's proposition and proofs developed for use in a specific rhetorical situation.
    Case
  86. First part of discourse (Greek)
    Prooemium
  87. Makes the audience well-disposed, receptive, and attentive; the first part of a discourse (English).
    Introduction
  88. An ancient exercise wherein students copied and elaborate on the work of revered or admired authors.
    Imitation
  89. An ancient exercise wherein students imitated sense of a discourse in words the than those used by original author.
    Paraphrase

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