Anatomy Lecture 3, 4

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Rahmstein
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252467
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Anatomy Lecture 3, 4
Updated:
2013-12-10 22:16:42
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Anatomy
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Terminology for Intro Anatomy relating to tissue
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  1. Tissue
    Are groups of similar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function
  2. Histology
    The study of tissues and their relationships.
  3. Epithelium
    Composed of one or more layers of closely packed cells between two compartments having different components.
  4. Epithelium-Apical (free) Surface
    Surface exposed either to the external environment or to some internal body space.
  5. Epithelium-Basal Surface
    Surface where the epithelium is attached to the underlying connective tissue
  6. Squamous Cell
    Flat, wide, and somewhat irregular in shape.  The nucleus looks like a flattened disc.  Arranged like irregular, flatten floor tiles.
  7. Cuboidal Cells
    About as tall as they are wide.  Do not resemble perfect "cubes" (don't have square edges).  Nucleus is spherical and located within the center of the cell.
  8. Columnar Cell
    Slender and taller than they are wide.  The cells look like a group of columns.  Nucleus=oval and near the basal region of cell.
  9. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Single layer of flat cells, look like a "fried egg" from the surface.
    • Tends to be in places where rapid exchange occurs.
  10. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Single layer of "cube like" cells..
    • Tends to absorb fluids and other substances across its membrane.
  11. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    Single layer that is "column like".  Nucleus=near basal region

    Function is absorption and secretion
  12. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    Multiple layers, basal layers tend to be more cuboidal in shape.

    • Keratinized ex: skin
    • Non keratinized ex: Esophagus
  13. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
    Multiple layered cells

    Found in large ducts and exocrine glands
  14. Stratified Columnar Epithelium
    Multiple Layered cells column like

    It is rare, found in places like the male urethra.
  15. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
    Single layered cells that vary in height--this pseudo.  Look columnar, but not.
  16. Transitional Epithelium
    • Looks vary whether tissue is stretched or relaxed.  Some may have two nuclei . 
    • Found in places like the urinary bladder.
  17. Gland
    Either individual cells or multicellular cells that mainly have Epithelial tissue.
  18. "Blast" Suffix
    Mean "germ, or sprout"

    • Basically, these cells are immature and undeveloped.
    • Also, these cells may create.
  19. "Cyte" Suffix
    Means cell is mature.
  20. "Clast" suffix
    One that breaks or breaks something else.
  21. Connective Tissue
    Designed to support, protect, and bind organs.

    Most diverse type of tissue.
  22. Extracellular Matrix
    Comprised of ground substance(non-living material) and protein fibers.
  23. Collagen Fibers
    Long, extracellular fibers that have the protein collagen. 

    The are flexible, strong and do not stretch easily. 

    The arrangement of these fibers allow them to withstand high force (one direction).
  24. Elastic Fibers
    Stretchy, wavy, have many branches.  Made of elastin. 

    Contained in organs like the lungs, skin etc because they allow these organs to return to original form.
  25. Reticular Fibers
    Interwoven and branching fibers that are flexible, but strong.  Help support organ structure and prevent damage to blood vessels when strained.
  26. Mesenchyme
    Contains viscous gel and immature protein fibers.  The cells are spindle shaped. 

    Is the source of all other connective tissue and is used to repair damaged tissue.
  27. Loose Connective Tissue
    Has less cells than dense connective tissue and the proteins are loosely arranged.  Used for spacing between organs and also provides cushioning for those organs.
  28. Areolar Connective Tissue
    Vascular, gel like, protein filled connective tissue. 

    Is the subcutaneous layer of skin and surrounds organs.
  29. Adipose Connective Tissue
    fat cells that are highly compact.
  30. Dense Connective Tissue
    Has more protein fibers and less ground substance.
  31. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    Has compact collagen fibers that are parallel and wavy.  Seen in tendons and ligaments.
  32. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
    Randomly arranged collagen fibers, can withstand impact from all directions and thus durable.  Found in the dermis, organs, etc.
  33. Elastic Connective Tissue
    Has lots of elastic fibers that branch frequently (allows stretching).

    Found in elastic arteries, true vocal cords, etc.
  34. Cartilage
    Has a firm, gel-like extracellular matrix.

    The strongest and most durable connective tissue.
  35. Chondrocyte-Cartilage Part
    Cell that creates cartilage.
  36. Lacuna-Cartilage Part
    The space where chondrocytes occupy.
  37. Hyaline Cartilage
    Looks glassy, has chondrocytes in lacuna and is covered by perichondrium.

    Most common cartilage, and weakest.  Found in Areas like nose, coastal cartilage (ribs), tips of bones.
  38. Fibrocartilage
    Parallel collagen fibers in matrix, no perichondrium. 

    • Strong, resists compression and shock.  
    • Found between vertebral discs, knee joints.
  39. Elastic Cartilage
    Has lots of elastic fibers that mesh together and has perichondrium. 

    Flexible, allowing it to retain structure. 

    Found in ear, larynx, etc.

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