vitamins and minerals

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servinggod247
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252481
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vitamins and minerals
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2013-12-10 22:02:25
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nutrition
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  1. Vitamin A sources
    • liver
    • fatty fish and eggs
    • fortified dairy products
  2. Vitamin A function
    • vision
    • bone growth/immunity
    • hormone synthesis and regulation
    • aids normal cell development and reproduction, gene expression and cell differentiation
  3. Beta-Carotene sources
    • dark leafy greens
    • deep orange vegetables and fruits
  4. Beta-Carotene function
    works as antioxident
  5. Vitamin D sources
    • naturally occurring in live and fatty fish
    • dairy products

    Non dietary source: sunlight
  6. Vitamin D function
    • increase blood calcium and phosphate levels for healthy teeth and bones
    • important regulator of cell differentiation
  7. Vitamin E sources
    Plant oils (ex. Corn, soybean, safflower, wheat germ oils) & the margarine products made from these plant oils, olives, nuts, seeds, green and leafy vegetables (such as spinach, asparagus), whole grains, & some fortified cereals (Caution: Vitamin E is easily destroyed during food processing methods which expose the food to oxygen, metals, light, and/or deep-fat frying.) Body cells routinely recycle vitamin E. Vitamin E is stored extensively in fatty tissues.
  8. Vitamin E function
    A major antioxidant protecting cell membranes, cellular lipids, red and white blood cells, lung tissues, and vitamin A from free radical damage Anticoagulant action which prevents blood clots from forming Needed for iron metabolism within the cell and for normal nerve development & maintenance Assists immune function
  9. Vitamin k sources
    Liver, milk, eggs, soybean and canola oils, and some fortified cereals Green leafy vegetables (cabbage, spinach, turnip greens, lettuce, etc.), broccoli, peas, green beans NON-DIETARY SOURCE: Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract (colon) is estimated to produce ~ 50% of our supply.
  10. vitamin k function
    Active in coagulation through the synthesis of blood clotting factors Bone formation (ensures production of necessary bone proteins which attach minerals to the bone structure)
  11. Vitamin A toxicities
    One of the two most toxic vitamins! Hypervitaminosis A is unlikely to occur unless supplements are used or frequent / large amounts of liver are eaten. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, irritability, headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, fatigue, red blood cell breakage, nosebleeds, skin rashes, hair loss, joint pain, itching, birth defects, bone and muscle soreness, poor/stunted growth, spleen and liver enlargement and damage, generalized menstruation cessation Large doses interfere with vitamin K’s absorption
  12. vitamin a deficiences
    NIGHT BLINDNESS, KERATINIZATION, XEROPHTHALMIA Sometimes referred to as Hypovitaminosis A anemia (small cell type), impaired growth damage to teeth, poor immunity changes in skin, intestinal tract lining and other body linings diarrhea, kidney stones reproductive abnormalities generalized fatigue
  13. Beta-Carotene toxicities
    Beta-Carotene from food sources: Bright golden yellow skin and membranes. Does not appear harmful. No health benefits have been seen in research studies using beta-carotene supplements. In fact, these supplements have been associated with increaesed risk of lung cancer in smokers
  14. Beta-Carotene deficiencies
    Beta-Carotene/Carotenoids: MACULAR DEGENERATION: A progressive loss of function by the macula that prevents focused vision. Blindness can result. Caution: Beta-Carotene supplements have not yet proven to be effective in preventing macular degeneration.
  15. Vitamin D toxicities
    One of the two most toxic vitamins! Hypervitaminosis D is unlikely to occur unless fish oil supplements or vitamin D supplements are used. Fatigue, weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, excessive thirst, increased urine output, irritability, severe depression, hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) and stone formation In infants: mental and physical retardation (changes in facial characteristics & narrowing of pulmonary arteries & the aorta) Main Symptoms: Hypercalcemia and calcium deposits found in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and blood vessels – referred to as stone formation.
  16. vitamin d deficiencies
    One of the two most toxic vitamins! Hypervitaminosis D is unlikely to occur unless fish oil supplements or vitamin D supplements are used. Fatigue, weakness, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, headaches, excessive thirst, increased urine output, irritability, severe depression, hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) and stone formation In infants: mental and physical retardation (changes in facial characteristics & narrowing of pulmonary arteries & the aorta) Main Symptoms: Hypercalcemia and calcium deposits found in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and blood vessels – referred to as stone formation.
  17. Vitamin E toxicities
    Unlikely unless supplements are used. Generalized GI tract discomfort (NVD) Impaired functioning of the immune system especially the white blood cells Hemorrhage (prevents adequate blood clotting by antagonizing vitamin K’s role) Possible brain hemorrhages (a form of stroke) Caution: Vitamin E supplements should not be taken by anyone on anticoagulant meds [blood thinners – aspirin, coumadin (warfarin), or heparin].
  18. vitamin e deficiencies
    Premature infants: Red blood cell membranes are fragile & rupture (erythrocyte hemolysis). Smokers or people subjected to air pollution components or people with very low fat intakes or with fat malabsorption syndromes: Hemolysis & subtle neurological disorders affecting spinal cord – loss of reflexes & muscle coordination, muscle degeneration, leg cramps, difficulty walking, impaired vision and speech.
  19. vitamin k toxicities
    Very rare because unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, excess is filtered out by the kidneys and excreted readily on a daily basis. Potential infant brain damage &/or death Note: Metadione (medicinal form of vitamin K) can lead to toxic signs/symptoms - jaundice (a yellowing of the skin) and/or anemia Caution: Vit. K supplements should not be taken by anyone on anticoagulant/antiplatelet medicines [blood thinners – aspirin, coumadin (warfarin), & heparin].
  20. vitamin k deficiencies
    Increased bruising and bleeding, risk of defective blood clotting & eventual hemorrhage Populations at risk: Newborn Infants, individuals who have a chronic condition associated with malnutrition or malabsorption, those who have been on long-term treatment with antibiotics, seriously ill patients such as cancer or dialysis patients or those in intensive care units Caution: Excessive doses of vitamin A interfere with vitamin K’s absorption. Excessive doses of vitamin E interfere with vitamin K’s blood clotting activities.
  21. Thiamin sources
    Many whole foods – whole grain products, nuts, seeds, legumes, enriched breads & cereals Liver, almost any pork meat (not fat) product (Alcohol interferes with thiamin’s absorption in the small intestine and accelerates thiamin’s excretion from the body.)
  22. thiamin function
    Coenzyme in energy metabolism (critical role) Nerve/muscle activity (facilitates nerve impulses to muscles) Supports normal appetite & normal nervous system function Critical during growth & development
  23. Riboflavin sources
    Milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, many meats, liver Leafy green vegetables Whole-grain & enriched breads & cereals
  24. Riboflavin function
    Coenzyme in energy metabolism (critical role) Works with other B vitamins; important for red blood cell production; and body growth
  25. niacin sources
    Protein-containing foods (because of the amino acid tryptophan) milk, eggs, meat, poultry, fish Whole grain products & enriched breads & cereals (Corn must be soaked in an alkaline solution to release its niacin from a protein that blocks niacin absorption.)
  26. niacin function
    Coenzyme in energy metabolism (critical role) Supports health of skin, nervous system (including brain function) & digestive system
  27. biotin function
    m Coenzyme in energy metabolism Coenzyme in lipid & glycogen synthesis & protein metabolism
  28. pantothenic acid sources
    sunflower seeds, mushrooms, peanuts, many vegetables, meat, milk, eggs
  29. pantothenic acid function
    Coenzyme in energy metabolism, coenzyme in lipid synthesis Stimulates growth, biosynthesis
  30. folate sources
    Leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, enriched grain products, mushrooms, dried beans/peas, liver, eggs Milk facilitates folate absorption
  31. folate funtion
    Active in new cell synthesis including red blood cell synthesis (works as a coenzyme) • Needed for DNA & RNA production • Helps protect DNA & RNA from damage Drug sensitive: Alcohol, 10 major drug groups & smoking interfere with the human body’s use of folate. Common examples include aspirin, antacids, oral contraceptives, anticonvulsant meds (seizure meds), and anti-inflammatory medicines
  32. b12 sources
    Naturally occurring ONLY in Animal products (Ex: liver, shellfish, fish, eggs, milk, meat, poultry) Some (not all) soy products such as soymilk and some cereals are fortified with B12. Stomach’s hydrochloric acid and INTRINSIC FACTOR is necessary for B12 absorption
  33. b12 funtion
    Active in new cell synthesis Works as a coenzyme helping to produce & maintain cells. Works with folate to make DNA and red blood cells. Maintains myelin sheaths around nerve cells
  34. b6 sources
    Meats, fish, poultry, shellfish Green & leafy vegetables, legumes, some fruits, whole grains, peanut butter, potatoes Fortified cereals ------------------------------------
  35. b6 function
    Part of a coenzyme used in amino acid & fatty acid metabolism (helps convert essential amino acids into nonessential amino acids) Assists in conversion of tryptophan into niacin Aids hemoglobin and neurotransmitter synthesis. Assists in release of glucose from glycogen stores, active with immune functions Critical to the development of brain and nervous system of a fetus
  36. vitamin c source
    Non-browning fruits and vegetables: Citrus fruits & juices, some other fruits (cantaloupe, papayas, mangoes & many of the berries) All types of peppers – mild to spicy hot, Cabbage family, dark green vegetables (broccoli, leafy greens), tomatoes
  37. vitamin c function
    Antioxidant / Aids iron absorption Aids collagen synthesis and wound healing Aids neurotransmitter & thyroxine synthesis Enhances immunity (mostly by its antioxidant activities) Strengthens resistance to infections Participates in amino acid metabolism
  38. thiamin tox
    No symptoms reported yet. However, when given IV or by injection, the following have been observed: headache, cardiac arrhythmia, convulsions, anaphylactic shock.

    Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome deficiencies continued: jerky eye movements, double vision, hallucinations, staggering gait Permanent brain damage can result if thiamin is deficient during brain growth periods.
  39. thiamin deficiencies
    WET BERIBERI = cardiovascular changes (increased heart rate, shortness of breath, edema in the lower extremities) DRY BERIBERI: = nervous system changes (difficulty walking, loss of sensations in hands & feet; tingling, pain, all over muscle weakness & wasting, advancing paralysis; enlarged heart; poor short term memory), anorexia, wt. loss Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome = mental confusion, disorientation, loss of memory,
  40. riboflavin tox
    No symptoms reported yet. No benefit from an excessive intake of this vitamin by non-deficient people has been recorded.
  41. riboflavin def
    ARIBOFLAVINOSIS: inflammation of the mouth and tongue, magenta tongue, sore throat, cracks at corners of mouth (cheilosis), skin rashes, reddening of cornea and eyelids, hypersensitivity to light (photophobia), confusion
  42. niacin tox
    Vasodilation [flushing] – low blood pressure, tingling, painful flush and rash, sweating, fainting, dizziness, blurred vision, abnormal liver function & damage, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, ulcer irritation, vomiting, impaired glucose tolerance *To minimize some of these effects, prescription niacin medications (coated and time-released) have been developed for cardiovascular patients.
  43. niacin def
    PELLAGRA: “4 D’s” - Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, & Death flaky red skin rash on areas exposed to sunlight, diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness, loss of memory, irritability, dizziness, mental confusion progressing to psychosis or delirium; swollen, smooth bright red or dark black tongue
  44. biotin
    No symptoms reported yet. No benefit from an excessive intake of this vitamin by non-deficient people has been recorded. Note: Raw egg white protein can interfere with biotin absorption.
  45. biotin def
    Abnormal heart action, loss of appetite, nausea, dry inflamed scaly skin, anemia, hair loss, depression, hallucinations, muscle pain, generalized weakness, fatigue, poor growth
  46. pantothenic acid tox
    Diarrhea, possibly excessive water retention No benefit from an excessive intake of this vitamin by non-deficient people has been recorded.
  47. pantothenic acid def
    Insomnia, fatigue, GI distress – nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, “burning feet”; hypoglycemia - increased sensitivity to insulin
  48. folate tox
    May mask (or hide) a B12 deficiency May interfere with some anticancer drugs May interfere with zinc metabolism
  49. folate def
    NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS (birth defects), macrocytic anemia (large blood cell), fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, immune system suppression, frequent infections, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, depression, mental confusion May mask a B12 deficiency
  50. b12 tox
    No symptoms reported yet. No benefit from an excessive intake of this vitamin by non-deficient people has been recorded. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Exception to water-sol. vitamins: Up to 6 years’ supply of this vitamin can be stored in the liver
  51. b12 def
    PERNICIOUS ANEMIA (macrocytic anemia), CREEPING PARALYSIS, damaged nerve sheaths, general fatigue, malfunctioning of nerves & muscles, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, depression, confusion Irreversible fetal nervous system damage
  52. b6
    Sensory & peripheral nerve damage – pain and numbness in extremities, loss of sensation in hands, feet, and mouth, unsteady gait, impaired/loss of reflexes – Once supplements are stopped, recovery may be slow with continued difficulty walking.
  53. b6 def
    Anemia (small cell type), Greasy Dermatitis – inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) and a red, greasy, scaly rash; hands and feet feel numb/prickling—like pins and needles; depression, confusion, irritability, muscle twitching, seizures
  54. vitamin c tox
    Headache, generalized fatigue, insomnia, nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, excessive urination, kidney stones, aggravation of gout symptoms Elevated blood glucose levels Interference of medical tests Excessive Vit. C blocks copper absorption. Excessive Vit. C releases iron from body storage.
  55. vitamin c def
    SCURVY: Weak connective tissue, muscle pain & degeneration, hysteria, depression, anemia (small cell type), diarrhea, pinpoint hemorrhages, swollen/bleeding gums, skin rashes, loosened teeth, frequent infections, bone pain & fragility

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