Geography card set #2

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Geography card set #2
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  1. Geography

    Literal meaning of the word "geography"
    The study of spatial variation

    -How and why
    things differ from place to place on the surface of the Earth

    -"Earth Writing"
  2. Physical (natural) geography
    -Focus on natural environment

    -Landforms
    and their distribution, climate patterns, and soils and vegetation
  3. Human Geography
    -Emphasizes people and how they interact with each other
  4. Areal Differentiation
    -The geographic description and explanation of spatial differences on Earth's surface

    -This includes physical as well as human patterns

    -
    No two places on the earth are exactly the same
  5. Early History of Geography
    • -Nearly every ancient society had some form of geography
    • -Modern geography began in the 17th century
  6. Approaches to Geography:

    Mathematical

    Cartographic
    -Branch of geography that deals with the figure and motions of the earth, its measurement, and map projections

    -
    The art and science of graphically representing a geographical area, usually on a flat surface such as a map or chart
  7. Regional Geography

    Systematic Geography
    -Focuses on a comprehensive understanding of physical and human characteristics of a particular region

    -Focus attention on one or a few aspects of the physical environment of human populations and societies
  8. Object

    Field
    -Discrete entities that have sharp boundaries and are separated by space

    -Continuously varying surfaces of the Earth

    -Ex: Average precipitation, landform elevations
  9. Dimensionality
  10. Geographic processes
    -The geographical process are both physical and human and tell what is going on (the causes or circumstances around) the area of concern

    Ex: Erosion, water, etc.
  11. Absolute Location

    Relative Location
    -Identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates (latitude/longitude)

    -Where something is located in relation to another place

    -Ex: Santa Barbara is x miles from LA
  12. Distance

    Direction
    -The cost of overcoming the separation between places (fuel, calories, etc)

    -Where things are in relation to other things
  13. Three types of scale:

    Phenomenon

    Analysis

    Cartographic
    -The actual size of a feature in geography

    -The size at which we study and analyze things

    -Size of the map relative to the part of the Earth
  14. Generalization
    -The amount of averaging over detail
  15. Site

    Situation
    -Physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of a place itself

    -
    Refers to the external relations of a place, expresses relative location

    -Ex: Tourists travel to Santa Barbara from LA because of the proximity of the two places
  16. Density
    -The amount of a feature per unit area
  17. Dispersion

    Concentration
    -The amount of spread of a phenomenon over area or around a central location

    -
    The clustering of a phenomenon around a central location
  18. Patterns

    Linear

    Random

    Cluster
    -Geometric arrangements of features in space

    -Not always straight, but generally straight

    -No pattern

    -All in one place, not random
  19. Spatial Association (Covariation)
    -When the distribution of two features spatially correspond with each other

    -Ex: Areas where consuming alcohol is legal tend to have Catholic residents, where so-called dry counties have mostly Protestant residents
  20. Regions
    -Areas broadly divided by physical characteristics, and human impact characteristics (the interaction of humans and their environment)
  21. Administrative Regions
    • -Sharply defined boundaries (countries, states, football fields)
    • -Uniform membership function with equal representation
    • -Official
  22. Thematic Region
    -Based on one or more objectively measurable properties (language, soil properties, etc)

    -Vague boundaries

    -Unofficial/non-uniform
  23. Functional Regions
    -Emerge from patterns of interaction over space and time that connect places

    -Ex: Region at which most people shop at a particular shopping center or a region in which most people listen to a particular radio station

    -Vague boundaries, non-uniform membership function
  24. Perceptual Regions
    -Regions defined by peoples' beliefs (stereotypical area, downtown, etc)

    -Vague boundaries, non-uniform membership function
  25. Region Boundary Sharpness

    Region Boundary Vagueness
    -Precise measurement

    -Not precise, implied
  26. Isochrones
    -Each line represents equal time to get to a certain starting point
  27. Earth's size and shape
    Bumpy, oblate spheroid because Earth is 27 miles wider at equator than it is from pole to pole

    -A body that is shaped like a sphere but is not perfectly round

    -
    Would be about as round and as smooth as a pool ball

    -71% water, 29% land
  28. Latitude-longitude grid (graticule)
    -A grid of lines running horizontally and vertically

    -Precise and standardized way of identifying locations on the Earth

    -Globe: Earth's graticule
  29. Meridians

    Parallels

    Prime Meridian
    -Vertical lines (longitude)

    -Horizontal lines (latitude)

    -0 degrees, passes through Greenwich Observatory outside of London
  30. Geographic Information
  31. Remote Sensing
    -Obtains images of an area or object without having the sensor in direct physical contact

    -Aerial photography or satellite sensors
  32. Aerial Photographs
    -Aerial photography from planned positions and routes permits reliable data gathering for large and small area mapping purposes
  33. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    -Standard photographic film detects reflected energy within the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
  34. Multispectral Scanning
    -A scanning system used to collect data over a variety of different wavelength ranges

    -Most common scanning system
  35. Resolution
    • -The detail an image holds
    • -Applies to raster digital images
    • -Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions
  36. Maps


    Cartography
    -Pictorial models of a portion of the Earth's surface

    -The art and science of maps and map-making
  37. Reference Maps
    -General purpose maps

    -
    Show accurate locations of features (natural or human-made) without analysis or interpretation

    Ex:
    Highway maps, city-street maps, topographic maps
  38. Thematic Maps
    -Present a specific spatial distribution or a single category of data

    -Population, rainfall, median income, etc
  39. Choropleth

    Cartogram
    -A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit data

    -Transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
  40. Isoline (countour) maps
    -Features lines that connect points registering equal values of the item mapped

    -Contour line- Shows identical elevations above sea level
  41. Proportional Area Symbols
    -In this technique, the cartographer selects a symbol and alters its size based on data values

    -Ex: A symbol for a point with a data value of 100 should be twice the area of the symbol for a point with the value of 50
  42. Interpreting Isoline maps
    Lines represent equal values

    Ex: Isotherms shown on daily weather maps connect points registering equal values of the item mapped
  43. Developing the Earth's surface and map projections
    -Mapmakers do not physically engage in cutting, peeling, or stretching

    -Instead, they project the globe grid onto a flat surface
  44. Developable Surfaces
    -Surfaces of cylinders, cones, and planes

    -
    Can be cut and laid flat without distortion
  45. Cylindrical Projection
    -Developed geometrically or mathematically from a cylinder wrapped around a globe
  46. Conic Projection
    -Cone is placed tangent to the globe along a single standard parallel

    -Often deployed to depict one hemisphere or smaller parts of the earth
  47. Planar (Azimuthal) Projections
    -Constructed by placing a plane tangent to the globe at a single point
  48. Projection Aspect and Location of Light Source
  49. Geometric Projections
    -Graticule is transferred from the globe to a geometrical figure, which can then be spread out flat (developed)
  50. Mathematical Projection
    -Map designs that are derived mathematically from equations involving angles and trigonometry
  51. Distortions due to projection
    -There are four basic characteristics of a map that are distorted to some degree, depending on the projection used

    -These characteristics include distance, direction, shape, and area
  52. Equivalent Projections
    -A projection that maintains accurate relative sizes is called an equal area, or equivalent projection
  53. Conformal Projections
    -Map projection that retains correct shape of small areas

    -Lines of latitude and longitude cross at right angles and scale is the same in all directions
  54. Choice of Projection
  55. Mercator Projection
    -Cylindrical projection

    -Straight lines drawn in constant compass direction, used for navigation
  56. Power of Maps

    Deception of Maps
  57. Topological Subway (Network) Maps
    -A type of diagram that has been simplified so that only vital information remains and unnecessary detail has been removed
  58. T-O Maps
    • -Medieval
    • -Asia at top in single part, Europe and Africa at the bottom
  59. Geographic Information System (GIS)
    -Software package for handling, processing, and analyzing geographic data

    -Also a computer database in which every item of data is tied to a precise geographic location
  60. Vector


    Raster
    The precise location of each object--point, line, or area--in a distribution is described (points on a river), more suitable for human or cultural data

    • -Study area is divided into a set of small (usually square) cells
    • -For natural geographic data, like elevations and rainfall
  61. Buffer

    Overlay
    • -A zone of specified distance around coverage features
    • -To lay or place (one thing) over or upon another, esp. in maps
  62. Domains of spatial behavior and interaction in human geography
    Between cities, countries, etc.
  63. Accessibility
    The relative ease at which a location may be reached from another location
  64. Distance Decay

    Friction of Distance
    -Describes the decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin

    -The greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction
  65. 1st Law of Geography
    -Tobler


    -Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things
  66. Typical Shape of Decay Function
  67. Critical Distance
    -The distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel

    -Ex: short distance trips are taken more than long distance trips
  68. Complementarity

    Transferability
    • -The relationship of two places or regions that each produce different goods or services
    • -Results in an exchange between places

    -The cost of moving a commodity relative to the ability of the commodity to bear the cost
  69. Intervening Opportunity
    -The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
  70. Movement bias
    -People's favoring of distance and direction

    -Control or regulation of movement of people commodities, communication
  71. Networks

    Nodes

    Links
    -The areal pattern of sets of places (nodes) and the routes (links) connecting them, along which movement can take place

    -
    Origin, destination, or intersection place

    -Connection or route within a network
  72. Node Hierarchies
    -Ex: Continent – Country – State – Region – City or time hierarchies (see the example below).
  73. Perception

    Cognition
    -The way in which an individual perceives the environment

    -Knowledge and beliefs about something, and the thinking and memory processes that modify them
  74. Affect

    Attitudes

    Behavior
    -Motion, mood, feelings, attitude

    -
    A belief with a response

    -Coordinated
    and goal-directed action
  75. Disaggregate Approach to Human Geography
    -Individual people studied in geography by turning to mental states or mind
  76. Two motivations for behavioral/cognitive geography
    -To study individual people (disaggregate approach)

    -To understand why people act the way they do from a geographical point of view
  77. Temporary Travel

    Migration
    • -Travel with no intent to change residence
    • (shopping, vacation)

    -The permanent relocation of an individual to a new place or residence
  78. Activity Space

    Home range

    Criminal Range
    -The area within which people move freely on their typical rounds of regular activity

    -Area in which a person lives and travels

    -
    Area over which a criminal targets for his crimes
  79. Time Geography
    -The study of temporal and spatial properties of human travel

    -Particularly temporal travel

    Temporal
    (time)
  80. Space-Time Paths

    Space-Time Prisms
    • -A diagram of the line through space and time which describes where we are at any given time, how long we spend there, and how fast we move between locations
    • -Usually describes a single day

    -A diagram of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and our daily responsibilities
  81. Space-time Budgets
    -How an individual budgets their time in the space-time prism
  82. Total Displacement

    Partial Displacement
    • -Move far enough so their new activity spaces do not interact with their former home ranges
    • -Ex: Moving to a new city in California

    • -Move to new residence nearby, with a new activity space that overlaps some of their previous home ranges
    • -Ex: Moving across town
  83. Channelized Migration

    Chain Migration
    • -Migration that flows between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns or some other affinity
    • -Ex: Retirees moving to Florida or Arizona

    • -Migration from one area to the other is sustained by links of friendship or kinship between first movers and later followers
    • -Ex: African Americans from Mississippi migrated to Chicago
  84. Counter-Migration
    -The return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
  85. African American Migration in the 20th century
    -Great Migration

    -Until 1960s,
    6 million African Americans moved from South to West, North
  86. Motivations to Migrate
    • -Poverty
    • -Rapid population growth
    • -Environmental deterioration
    • -War
  87. Forced Migration

    Voluntary Migration
    • -Relocation decision is made solely by people other than migrants themselves
    • -Ex: Trail of Tears

    • -When people relocate their residence by free choice
    • -Ex: Moving houses as a result of a job change
  88. Push Factors

    Pull Factors
    • -An unfavorable characteristic that pushes residents away
    • -Ex: Pollution

    • -Acts as an attractive force and draws migration from other regions
    • -Ex: Low crime rate
  89. Anticipated Place Utility
    -The process of increasing the attractiveness of a product to a group of consumers by altering its physical location
  90. Refugees
    People who flee their homelands because of war, persecution, political problems, etc
  91. Spatial Search and Choice Models
    • -Basically shows houses seen by buyers and houses in price range of buyers
    • -Dots: Represent house vacancies in the price of buyers, vacancies seen by buyers

    -Black squares- workplaces of buyers
  92. U.S. Center of Population
    -the point at which an imaginary, flat, weightless, and rigid map of the United States would balance perfectly if weights of identical value were placed on it so that each weight represented the location of one person on the date of the census

    -2010: Texas County, Missouri
  93. Cognitive (mental) maps

    Distortions in Cognitive Maps
    -Set of mental representations people hold in their mind

    -
    Express beliefs/knowledge about the layout of the environment at different scales

    -Influenced by personal feelings, and may be distorted and incomplete when compared to the actual layouts
  94. Sketch Maps
    - a rough map of the principal features of a locale, as one drawn from memory. a map drawn from observation (rather than from exact measurements).
  95. Navigation

    Orientation

    You-Are-Here Map Orientation
    -Coordinated, goal-directed travel through the environment

    -Knowing where to go and where you are

    -
    Shows where you are in relation to other places at the present time
  96. Environmental Attitudes

    Place Perception

    Place Stereotypes
    -determine behavior that either increases or decreases environmental quality.

    -the feeling a person connects with a place they haven't been to, based on what they've heard or read about the place

    -
    Believing what you hear or read about a place rather than reality

  97. Self-Identification and Self-Definition Via Place
    -People tend to identify and define themselves strongly with the places that they are from

    -(East Coast, Orange County, etc)


    -Can lead to some stereotyping
  98. Place Attachment
    -Place attachment is an affective bond that people establish with specific areas where they prefer to remain and where they feel comfortable

    -Ex:
    a hometown
  99. Preference Maps
    -is generally a technique of analyzing the market of a product in comparison to other competitors' products
  100. Globalization
    -A reference to the increasing interconnection between all parts of the world
  101. Computational Modeling in Geography
    GIS, raster, vector
  102. Principle Of Parsimony
    -the simplest explanation that works is the best

    -
  103. Explanatory Model

    Normative Model
    -explanation of why and how a thing works or an explanation of why a phenomenon is the way it is

    -which evaluates alternative solutions to answer the question
  104. Social Gravity
    -The force that draws a person to their original social position, often binding a person and making them feel they cannot fight against it.

    -Ex: If a person born lower class
  105. Simple Gravity Model
    I=k(constant) PiPj/Dbij

    • Amount of interaction= constant (k) place1(x)place2/square of distance between them
  106. Reilly's Breaking Point Model
    -larger cities have larger spheres of influence than smaller ones.
  107. Huff (potential) Model
    -An analysis used to determine the probability a customer has of shopping at a particular retailer. Based on size of store and location.
  108. Personal Communication Field
    -An area defined by the distribution of an individual's short-range informal communications. The size and shape of the field are defined by work, recreation, school
  109. Individual Communication

    Mass Communication
    -When a person talks to a person or a few persons directly rather than a large group or an audience

    -Study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
  110. Trail of Tears
    • -Forced Migration of Indians from Georgia to Oklahoma
    • -Many died
  111. Ideological Culture

    Technological Culture

    Sociological Culture
    -Beliefs and knowledge: creation stories, language, ethical systems (mentifacts)

    -Material objects and techniques for use: tools, farming and cooking practices, weapons, architecture (artifacts)

    -Social patterns and rituals: kinship and mating systems, politics, social hierarchy (sociofacts)
  112. Artifact

    Mentifact

    Sociofact
    -Material manifestation of culture (item)

    -
    Expresses values and beliefs (language, religion, folktales)

    -
    Rule, custom, or institution (politics, mating systems, family structure)
  113. Culture Trait

    Culture Region
    • -A single distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture
    • -Ex: Using chopsticks

    -A region in which common cultural characteristics prevail (language)
  114. Cultural Landscape
    -The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society

    -The built environment
  115. Innovation

    Diffusion
    -Introduction of new culture traits, whether ideas, practices, or material objects

    -The spread and movement of a phenomenon over space and through time
  116. Cultural Ecology
    -The study of the relationship, between a culture group and the natural environment in occupies
  117. External Contact

    In-Situ Cultural Changes
    -Contact between peoples with different cultures, usually leading to change in both systems

    -
    Cultural changes that were not influenced by external contact and occurred within the culture
  118. Culture Hearth
    -An area from which a distinct set of culture traits, technologies, and ideas develops
  119. Cultural Convergence

    Cultural syncretism
    -Cultures become more alike as they share technology and organizational structures

    -
    The blending of elements of cultures
  120. Ethnicity
    -Racial, cultural, religious characteristics distinguish group
  121. Number of Languages

    Major World (Top 5)
    -6,900 spoken today

    -Mandarin, Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic
  122. Primary Language

    Secondary Language
    -Native language, 1st language

    • -Language that is not 1st language, learned
    • -Ex: American learning Spanish
  123. Monolingualism

    Multilingualism
    -Condition of being able to speak only a single language

    -
    Ability to speak multiple languages (most of the world)
  124. Language Family
    • -A collection of languages related to each other through a common language long before recorded history.
    • -Ex: Romance languages

    -
  125. Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Language Family
    -Probably farmers in Turkey 9,000 years ago

    -Spread to Europe, Asia
  126. Extinct Language

    Moribund Language
    - A language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use

    -
    A language that has reached a reduced state of use (60-80% of world languages)
  127. American Indian Languages

    Native American Languages Act
    -250 Native American languages exist today

    • -1990
    • -the status of the cultures and languages of Native Americans is unique and the United States has the responsibility to act together with Native Americans to ensure their survival
  128. Origin of English Language

    Diffusion of English Language
    -Brought to England by West Germanic invaders

    -America, New Zealand, Australia
  129. Lingua Franca

    Dialects
    -A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

    -
    Different forms of the same language that have unique words, meanings, and pronunciations
  130. Standard (official) language
    -Language used in education, formal language
  131. Pidgins

    Creoles
    -A simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages and is used for communication between cultures

    - A stable natural language developed from the mixing of parent languages (Jamaican)
  132. Toponymy

    Major World Religions
    The study of place names

    -Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists
  133. Divinity

    Monotheism

    Polytheism
    -The state of things that come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god

    -Belief in the existence of one god

    -
    Belief in many gods
  134. Animism

    Shamanism

    Secularism
    -Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life

    -
    The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community (Korean Kingdoms/ Central Asia)

    -The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking
  135. Religious "Dialects"
  136. Universalizing Religion

    Proselytizing
    -a religion that attempts to operate on a global scale and to appeal to all people wherever they reside

    -trying to convert someone to your religion
  137. Ethnic Religion

    Tribal Religion
    -Meant for specific cultures, Hinduism, Judaism

    -
    small local religion with close, animistic ties to nature, shrinking, ex. Shinto (japanese)
  138. Spatial Diffusion
    -The process or dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant points which it is directly or indirectly connected.
  139. Medical Geography
    - Medical geographers examine the distribution of health-related phenomena over time -Ways in which these phenomena interact and determine the status of human health in a community.
  140. Adoption of Innovations

    Innovation "Laggards"
    -Adopted as a result of needing new solutions to problems or other reasons

    -Laggards are traditionalists and the last to adopt an innovation
  141. Expansion Diffusion

    Relocation Diffusion
    • -The spread of an idea from one place to another that also remains in the hearth where it started
    • -Ex: Islam

    -
    The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another

    -Ex:
    Aids
  142. Contagious Diffusion

    Hierarchical Diffusion
    • -Spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or place
    • -Ex: Spread of Islam from Mecca

    -Contagious diffusion is the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
  143. Hagerstrand Model of Diffusion
    - Theoretical model to explain the process of how innovations become diffused, that is how new ideas spread over a region
  144. Monte Carlo Modeling
    -A numerical process of repeatedly calculating a mathematical problem in which the random variables of the problem are simulated from random number generators.
  145. Isotropic Plane

    Isotropic, plain assumption
    -A plane that is identical in all directions

    -
    An area is completely uniform physically, politically, technologically, and culturally
  146. Mean Information Field (MIF)
    -Field in which contacts can occur

    -
    Square grid of 25 cells, with each cell being assigned a probability of being contacted

    • -The possibility of contact is very high in the central cells from which the diffusion takes place, decreases as you move outward
  147. Modifying Assumptions of Hagerstrand Model
    -Models showed a masculine and falsely-ordered view of the world

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