Anatomy Lecture 5

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Author:
Rahmstein
ID:
252485
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Anatomy Lecture 5
Updated:
2013-12-10 22:16:18
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Anatomy
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The lecture pertains to the Integumentary System
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  1. Integument Functions
    • Protection
    • Prevents water loss
    • Regulates temperature
    • Metabolic regulation (vitamin d)
    • Immune defense
    • Sensory reception
    • Excretion
  2. Epidermis
    The epithelium of the skin.
  3. Stratum Basale
    5th layer

    Single layer of cells that are either cuboidal or columnar.

    Attached to the basement membrane. 

    Contains large numbers of keratinocyte stem cells, melanocyte cells, and tactile cells.
  4. Stratum Spinosum
    "Spiny layer"--4th layer

    Contains keratinocytes that are rising up the epidermis.
  5. Stratum Granulosum
    3rd layer

    Keratinization begins (keratinocytes fill with keratin)

    Keratinocytes begin to die here
  6. Stratum Lucidum
    2nd layer (only found in thick skin)

    Only two or three cells thick.

    Keratinocytes here are flattened and filled with eleidin.
  7. Stratum Corneum
    1st layer (superficial)

    20-30 dead cells thick of heavily keratinized cells.  These cells interconnect and lack a nucleus.
  8. Keratinocytes
    Cells containing keratin.  Found in the epidermis.

    They provide the skin's strength and waterproof it.
  9. Keratin
    A tough and insoluble protein that twists and intertwines with each other.  Found in skin.
  10. Keratinization
    Process where keratinocytes fill with keratin.
  11. Melanocytes
    Process pigments called melanosomes.

    Melaonsomes then wrap around keratinocyte nucleii to protect the DNA from damage
  12. Epidermal Dendritic Cells
    Immune cells that attack pathogens and cancer cells in the epidermis.
  13. Striae
    Stretch marks.

    Its when collagen fibers break in the dermis, resulting in missing sections of the dermis.
  14. Dermis
    Deep to epidermis.  Composed of cells of connective tissue and has primarily collagen fibers.
  15. Hypodermis
    Deepest part of dermis.  It is not considered to be part of the skin.  Contains areolar and adipose connective tissue. 

    Drugs are injected in this layer because of the vast vascular networks.
  16. Burns (1st 2nd and 3rd)
    1st degree only effects the epidermis

    2nd degree effects the epidermis and part of the dermis

    3rd degree effect the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer.
  17. Nail
    Nail body: pinkish and a distal white edge.

    Nail root: Proximal and embedded under the skin.

    Hyponychium: A region of thickened stratum under the nail where it projects.
  18. Hair
    • Shaft: portion outside epidermis
    • Root: hair within the follicle internal to skin surface.
    • Arrector pili: muscle that contracts to raise hair
    • Follicle: oblique tube that surrounds the hair.
    • Hair bulb: epithelial cells that swell at the base where hair originates.
  19. Sebaceous Gland
    Discharge oily, waxy secretion balled sebum (usually into a hair follicle).

    Acts as a lubricant and has antibacterial properties.
  20. Sudoriferous Gland
    Aka Sweat gland

    have coiled , tubular secretory portions.  A sweat duct gland carryies the sweat to the surface of epidermis.

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