Earth Science Final Review

Card Set Information

Earth Science Final Review
2013-12-10 23:33:26

Show Answers:

  1. Ablation zone
    Area of a glacier that is losing net snow or ice due to melting
  2. Abrasion
    The erosion of a stream channel as sand or gravel is transported down stream
  3. Absolute humidity
    A measure of the actual amount of water vapor in the air at a given time
  4. Abyssal plain
    Large flat regions of the seafloor at depths below 3,000 meters
  5. Accuracy
    The degree to which a set of measured values matches an accepted or known value
  6. Acid mine drainage
    Runoff resulting when water reacts with metallic ores
  7. Acid rain
    Rain with a pH value less than the pH of unpolluted precipitation
  8. Active continental margins
    A margin located adjacent to a plate boundary
  9. Adiabatic temperature change
    Cooling or warming of air caused when air is allowed to expand or is compressed, not because heat is added or subtracted
  10. Adiabatic lapse rate
    Rate of temperature change in the atmosphere due to changing atmospheric pressure
  11. Aerosols
    Tiny solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere
  12. Aftershock
    Sequence of earthquakes that follow a larger event
  13. A horizon
    Top layer of soil defined by the presence of organic matter mixed in with mineral and rock fragments
  14. Air
    A mixture of many discrete gases, of which nitrogen and oxygen are most abundant
  15. Air density
    The mass of gases per volume of air
  16. Air mass
    A large body of air that is characterized by a near-uniform temperature and humidity
  17. Air pollution
    The presence of airborne particles and gases in concentrations that endanger the health and well-being of organisms or disrupt the orderly functioning of the enviornment
  18. Albedo
    The reflectivity of a surface, usually expressed as a fraction of the incident radiation reflected
  19. Alpine glacier
    A mountain glacier
  20. Altocumulus clouds
    A principal cloud type that ccurs at middle of the troposhere
  21. Altostratus clouds
    A high cloud type that appears thin and spread out
  22. Amphibole
    A member of a mineral group in which all members are double-chain silicates
  23. Andesite
    Fine-grained igneous rock of intermediate composition. Up to half of the rock is plagioclase feldspar, with the rest being ferromagnesian minerals.
  24. Andesitic magma
    A magma with intermediate silica content
  25. Angle of repose
    The steepest angle at which loose material remains stationary without sliding downslope
  26. Anticyclones
    A high-pressure center characterized by a clockwise flow of air in the Northern Hemisphere
  27. Aquifer
    A body of rock or regolith with sufficient porosity and permeability to provide water in useful quantities to wells or springs
  28. Aquitard
    Impermeable beds that hinder or prevent groundwater movement
  29. Archean
    A term, meaning ancient, which has been applied to the oldest rocks of the Precambrian
  30. Artesian aquifer
    An aquifer completely filled with pressurized water and separated from the land surface by a relatively impermeable confining bed, such as shale. Also called confined aquifer
  31. Artificial beach nourishment
    Adding sand to a beach by mechanical means
  32. Ash
    Very fine-grained volcanic material erupted from a volcano that commonly forms a cloud
  33. Asteroid
    A small, generally rocky, solid body orbiting the sun and ranging in diameter from a few meters to hundreds of kilometers
  34. Asteroid belt
    Region between Mars and Saturn where majority of solar-orbiting asteroids are found
  35. Asthenosphere
    A weak layer of Earth's mantle below the lithosphere upon which tectonic plates move
  36. Astronomical unit
    The average distance from the sun to Earth
  37. Atmosphere
    The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or celestial body. One of the four components of the earth system.
  38. Atmospheric pressure
    Pressure exerted by weight of the overlying column of air
  39. Atom
    Smallest possible particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
  40. Atomic mass number
    The total number of neutrons and protons in an atom
  41. Atomic number
    The total number of protons in an atom
  42. Aurora
    A bright display of ever-changing light caused by charged particles interacting with the upper atmosphere in the polar region
  43. Barrier island
    A long, narrow sandy ridge of land that forms parallel to, but separate from, the mainland coast
  44. Barycenter
    A common center of mass around which two objects revolve