Sociology Final

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NateS11
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252513
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Sociology Final
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2013-12-16 10:32:25
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Soc final
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  1. Majority Group
    • One whose appearances and ways of life are considered superior - White Anglo Saxon Protestants
    • Its members share a common language, value system, and history
    • Their norms and values are reinforced by custom and law
    • It treats unequally all other groups
  2. The Religious view of sex role differences
    • Many religious teachings say that Man was made in the image of God and that Woman a subsequent and secondary act of creation
    • Woman was created to help Man and bear his children. 
    • Man is the glory and image of God, but woman is the glory of man
  3. The biological view of sex role differences
    • People who believe this have obtained evidence from two main sources, 1) other animal species and 2) the physiological differences between men and women
    • The say members of the same sex behave in similar ways and do the same activities.
    • However, sociobiologists believe that much of the human social behavior has a genetic basis.
    • They say that patterns of social organization are rooted in the genetic structure of our species. Therefore, despite equal access to education and job opportunity, men will always be better in mathematics, business, science and politics.
  4. refers to circumstances in which the rewards and privileges of
    society are arbitrarily denied to minority group members whose qualifications are equal
    to those of the majority group (as in, for example, refusing to sell a home to a black
    couple who have the requisite resources).
    Discrimination
  5. Discrimination
    refers to circumstances in which the rewards and privileges of society are arbitrarily denied to minority group members whose qualifications are equal to those of the majority group (as in, for example, refusing to sell a home to a black couple who have the requisite resources).
  6. refers to actions motivated by personal prejudice or bigotry. For example, if a realtor held prejudicial attitudes toward blacks, and then acted on the basis of those attitudes to prevent a black family from moving into a white neighborhood, we would evidence the concept of individual discrimination.
    Prejudicial attitudes have declined in recent years, especially among younger cohorts. However, discrimination is not necessarily a function of prejudicial attitudes; in other words, discrimination can occur in the absence of prejudice.
    Individual Discrimination
  7. Individual Discrimination
    • refers to actions motivated by personal prejudice or bigotry. For example, if a realtor held prejudicial attitudes toward blacks, and then acted on the basis of those attitudes to prevent a black family from moving into a white neighborhood, we would evidence the concept of individual discrimination.
    • Prejudicial attitudes have declined in recent years, especially among younger cohorts. However, discrimination is not necessarily a function of prejudicial attitudes; in other words, discrimination can occur in the absence of prejudice.
  8. refers to actions motivated not by prejudice, but by a perceived need to conform to certain expectations. In other words, nondiscriminatory behaviors may have negative effects.
    For example, a realtor may discriminate out of fear of alienating his/her colleagues or customers; colleagues and customers represent a powerful reference group.
    Adaptive Discrimination
  9. Adaptive Discrimination
    • refers to actions motivated not by prejudice, but by a perceived need to conform to certain expectations. In other words, nondiscriminatory behaviors may have negative effects.
    • For example, a realtor may discriminate out of fear of alienating his/her colleagues or customers; colleagues and customers represent a powerful reference group.
  10. refers to differential and unequal treatment applied to all members of a category, such as all women, all Hispanics, all people over the age of 65. It is very difficult to find unambiguous examples in this context; inner-city black males aged 18-25, who are discriminated against by white and black employers alike, may be a possible example.
    Categorical Discrimination
  11. Categorical Discrimination
    refers to differential and unequal treatment applied to all members of a category, such as all women, all Hispanics, all people over the age of 65. It is very difficult to find unambiguous examples in this context; inner-city black males aged 18-25, who are discriminated against by white and black employers alike, may be a possible example.
  12. refers to the effects of inequalities that are rooted in the system itself. This concept is difficult to grasp in the absence of significant study in sociology. Institutional discrimination takes two forms: Cultural and Structural
    Institutional Discrimination
  13. Institutional Discrimination
    refers to the effects of inequalities that are rooted in the system itself. This concept is difficult to grasp in the absence of significant study in sociology. Institutional discrimination takes two forms: Cultural and structural
  14. What are the two forms of Institutional Discrimination?
    Cultural and Structural
  15. means attributing to others the characteristics one finds too painful to acknowledge in oneself. For example, instead of admitting that they were sexually attracted to black women, “traditional Southern” white men accused black men of coveting white women. (Cf. the practice of concubines during plantation slavery.) Robber barons, such as Henry Ford, accused Jews of being scheming, ruthless, and unfair competitors.
    Projection
  16. Projection
    means attributing to others the characteristics one finds too painful to acknowledge in oneself. For example, instead of admitting that they were sexually attracted to black women, “traditional Southern” white men accused black men of coveting white women. (Cf. the practice of concubines during plantation slavery.) Robber barons, such as Henry Ford, accused Jews of being scheming, ruthless, and unfair competitors.
  17. Resentment toward overly punitive parents may lead to subconscious feelings of hostility. Or, when people are repeatedly frustrated in efforts to meet their needs, they may become angry or aggressive toward others. Hostility, anger, and aggression are displaced or transferred to safer targets. These targets are often minorities who are perceived to be less powerful.
    Scapegoating
  18. Scapegoating
    Resentment toward overly punitive parents may lead to subconscious feelings of hostility. Or, when people are repeatedly frustrated in efforts to meet their needs, they may become angry or aggressive toward others. Hostility, anger, and aggression are displaced or transferred to safer targets. These targets are often minorities who are perceived to be less powerful.
  19. 1. Refers to an attitude that is unfavorable to, or disparaging of, a whole group and all of its members. An attitude is a state of mind or feeling that can be positive or negative.
    2. This state of mind or feeling is enhanced by stereotypes: over-simplified generalizations which emphasize selected traits of another group. Stereotypes evoke a generalized reaction to the members of that group.
    3. The traits that are selected tend to be those which emphasize differences rather than similarities. They often become an excuse for differential and unequal treatment.
    4. The underlying assumption is that these traits are innate, hereditary, or inherent; this creates a justification to do nothing to redress grievances.
    5. Furthermore, these traits are often reinforced by popular culture, including the mass media.
    Prejudice
  20. Prejudice
    • 1. Refers to an attitude that is unfavorable to, or disparaging of, a whole group and all of its members. An attitude is a state of mind or feeling that can be positive or negative.
    • 2. This state of mind or feeling is enhanced by stereotypes: over-simplified generalizations which emphasize selected traits of another group. Stereotypes evoke a generalized reaction to the members of that group.
    • 3. The traits that are selected tend to be those which emphasize differences rather than similarities. They often become an excuse for differential and unequal treatment.
    • 4. The underlying assumption is that these traits are innate, hereditary, or inherent; this creates a justification to do nothing to redress grievances.
    • 5. Furthermore, these traits are often reinforced by popular culture, including the mass media.
  21. Define Structural Discrimination
    • Refers to the phenomenon where political economic structures operate in such a way as to systematically disadvantage certain groups.
    • For example, a confluence of historical events (the building of the interstate highway system, the rapid transformation to technologically progressive forms of production, rapid deindustrialization and disinvestment, and segregation in the housing industry—upheld through formal and informal practices in both the state and private sectors) trapped a segment of the black social class structure in urban neighborhoods characterized by increasingly extreme poverty. Circumstances are such that these residents find it nearly impossible to escape. Individual prejudices are insufficient to explain this problem.
  22. Deviance
    refers to the publically-recognized violation of widely held norms, such as: you should not take what does not belong to you.
  23. refers to the publically-recognized violation of widely held norms, such as: you should not take what does not belong to you.
    Deviance
  24. Characteristics of Deviance
    • 1. Deviance is universal; all societies have behaviors that they regard as problematic. However, it is difficult to identify universal forms of deviance—in other words, behaviors that all societies regard as problematic.
    • 2. Deviance is an evaluation imparted to a behavior, such as good, bad, or undesirable; it is not an inherent characteristic of this behavior. No behavior is inherently deviant.
    • 3. Societies make rules and enforce them. Rules are socially constructed, and societies utilize social control mechanisms to ensure they are adhered to.
    • 4. Deviance is contextual. What behaviors are regarded as deviant varies by time, place, and culture.
  25. Describe the Medicalization of Deviance
  26. Deterrence Theory
    Assumes that people are rational decision makers who calculate the potential costs and benefits of a behavior before they act. If the benefits of a deviant outweigh the costs we will be inclined to do it. conversely, if the costs exceed the benefits, the theory predicts that we'll decide its not worth the risk.
  27. Existence of a majority-minority situation requires these 3 conditions
    • The groups possess either cultural or biological differences - Biological dont have to be visible
    • A high degree of ethnocentrism
    • Differential power - one group has more resources than the other - power can be acquired through superior numbers, technology, or organization

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