Geography pt 3

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Trekofstarsx
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Geography pt 3
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2013-12-11 01:34:30
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Geo pt 3
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  1. Politics

    Political Geography
    -The activities associated with the governance of a country

    • -Study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena
    • -Impact on other spatial components of society and culture
  2. Territory
    -an area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state
  3. Positional Disputes
    Territorial Disputes
    Resource Disputes
    • -Occur when states disagree about documents that define a boundary
    • -Disagreement between states over the control of surface areas
    • -Disagreement over the control or use of shared resources
  4. political status of Antarctica
    • -Neither established government nor permanent population
    • -Therefore, it is not a state
  5. Microstate of Sealand

    Micronation
    • -Unrecognized micronation
    • -Claims that it is an independent country but that is doubtful

    -entities that claim to be independent nations or states but which are not recognized by world governments or major international organizations
  6. Geopolitics
    -Study of how spatial relations among regions influence their current and past political activities and relations
  7. Electoral Geography
    -The study of geographic elements of organization and the result of elections
  8. Voting demographics
    • -statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it.
    • -Patterns of voting
  9. Redistricting
    -The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to changing patterns of population or changing legal requirements
  10. Gerrymandering
    -Redrawing district boundaries so that particular candidates have an advantage in that area
  11. Majority-Minority District
    -one in which a racial or ethnic minority makes up a large-enough share of the electorate to assure that the community has a reasonable chance to elect the candidate of their choice.
  12. Compactness of electoral districts
    -Compactness is good, but also need to "represent smaller-group minorities" so, conflicts w/ compactness sometimes.
  13. State as administrative region
    -same as a country. internationally recognized, under own sovereign control. about 200 in world right now. a bounded territory.
  14. Nation as a grouping of people
    -A community of people with a common culture and territory, bound together by a set of shared beliefs and customers
  15. Nation Homeland as thematic region

    Nation homeland as cognitive region
  16. Sovereignty
    - is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory
  17. Nation-state
    -A state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation

    -Has uniform religion, language, or some other characteristic that binds the nation together

    -Ex: Poland or Slovenia

  18. Centripetal force

    Centrifugal force
    -Forces that tend to bind together a state, promoting unity

    -Forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state
  19. Autonomous Nationalism
    -A movement by a dissident minority intent on achieving partial or total independence from the territory in which it occupies from the state with which it lies

    -Ex:
    Movement of the French in Canada
  20. Terrorism
    -Open and covert action employing the inducement of fear and terror as a means of political coercion
  21. Multi-state (supranational) organizations
    -A type of multi-national organization where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states

    -
    Used to describe the European Union
  22. United Nations

    European Union
    • -51 countries
    • -Bring together the world's nations in international assembly and to promote world peace

    -
    An economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe
  23. NAFTA

    CAFTA
    • -Links Canada, Mexico, and US in an economic community
    • -Aimed at removing trade and movement restrictions among the countries

    (CAFTA) eliminates barriers to trade and investment among the seven signatories: Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States.
  24. NATO
    -An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
  25. Internal Administrative Regions
    -Administrative regions smaller than those of entire countries

    -
    In provinces, states, counties, etc. school, sewage, electrical districts. mostly tracked through GIS. includes cadastral regions.
  26. Cadastral Region
    -Private property and real estate parcel boundary lines.

    -Legal geography deals w/ border disputes
  27. Largest and smallest states
    Largest: Russia

    Smallest: Nauru
  28. Characteristic state shapes

    • -Elongated (Norway)
    • -Compact (Zimbabwe)
    • -Prorupt (Thailand)
    • -Fragmented (Philippines)
    • -Perforated (South Africa)
  29. Enclaves

    Exclaves
    • -A small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
    • -Ex: Lesotho

    • -A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
    • -Ex: A strip of land that connects to a territory but extends into the other territory in the ocean
  30. Landlocked states
    -A landlocked country is a country entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 48 landlocked countries

    -Ex: Arizona, Alaska
  31. Core

    Capital
    • -The nucleus of a state
    • -Contains its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity

    -
    the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the government
  32. Administrative boundaries (borders)
    -Lines that establish the limit of each state's jurisdiction and authority
  33. Frontier Zones
    • -Ill-defined and fluctuating areas marking the effective end of a state's authority
    • -Fuzzy boundaries of fxnl regions
    • -In past civilizations
  34. Natural (physical) boundaries

    Geometric (artificial) boundaries
    -Those based on recognizable physical features, such as mountains, rivers, or lakes

    • -Segments of parallels of latitude or meridians of longitude (Africa, Asia, Americas)
    • -Ex: 49th parallel (Western portion of US/Canada border)
  35. Antecedent Boundaries

    Subsequent Boundaries
    -A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in a place while people moved in to occupy the surroundings

    -A boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that reflects the cultural characteristics of the bounded areas
  36. Types of subsequent boundaries:

    Consequent Boundary

    Superimposed Boundary
    • -A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
    • -Ex: Boundary drawn between Northern Ireland and Ireland

    • -A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern
    • -Ex: African countries (why there is so much genocide)
  37. Maritime Boundaries
    • -A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic and/or geopolitical criteria
    • -usually includes areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources
    • -Ex: drilling for oil
  38. UNCLOS

    (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
    -The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources
  39. Continental Shelf
    -The gently sloping extension of submerged land bordering most coastlines and reaching seaward for varying distances up to 100 miles or more

    -
    Most marine catch is made here
  40. Territorial Waters

    Contiguous Zone
    • -is a belt of coastal waters extending at most 12 nautical miles from the baseline of a coastal state
    • -Seen as territory of the state

    • -24 miles off the coast
    • -Although a state does not have complete sovereignty in this zone, it can enforce customs, immigration, and sanitation laws, and has the right of hot pursuit out of territorial waters
  41. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    High Seas (International Waters)
    • -A zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
    • -Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction
    • -Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state
    • -Any nation can exercise jurisdiction for piracy
  42. Natural Environment

    Anthropogenic Environment
    • -The physical environment unaffected by human activities
    • -Little or no "natural landscape" remains

    -areas of Earth's terrestrial surface where direct human alteration of ecological patterns and processes is significant

    - Because of human food for populations for food, shelter and other resources and services including recreation and aesthetic needs.
  43. Nature as "constructed"
    -aren't humans "natural"? can humans "make" nature? is nature good? humans vs. nature.
  44. Environmental Geography

    Human-environment relations
    -the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and their social and natural environment

    -
    These interactions and changes create unplanned cultural landscapes and unwanted environmental conditions
  45. Environmental Determinism

    Cultural Determinism

    Cultural Automony
    -The view that the physical environment, particularly climate controls human action, molds human behavior, and conditions cultural development

    -
    Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels.

    -The view that cultures can develop any particular set of cultural traits independent of their environmental circumstance
  46. Culture-environment interactionism
    -The more technologically advanced the culture, the more apparent is its impact on the natural landscape
  47. Environmental Hazards
    -'Environmental hazard' is the state of events which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health.
  48. Extreme Events

    Hazard Events
    -extreme: events of unusual magnitude. MAY OR MAY NOT be hazardous to people. hazard: an extreme event that IS hazardous to humans.
  49. Physical Magnitude

    Hazard Magnitude
    -a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement

    -Risk?
  50. Classifying Hazards as natural or anthropogenic
    Natural- events in the environment that can harm humans

    Anthropogenic- Human adaptions and location decisions (building homes in certain places) play a role in the destructiveness of hazards
  51. Types of Natural Hazards

    Types of Anthropogenic Hazards
    -Flood, fire, earthquake, tornado hurricane

    -Crime, civil disorder, terrorism, war, structure collapse, etc
  52. Cause of hazards in nature, society, and technology
    Think
  53. Classifying hazards by space-time parameters
    frequency, duration, area/extent, speed of onset, spatial exertion, temporal space
  54. Pervasive-intensive continuum for hazards

    Pervasive Events

    Intensive Events
    -Used to composite the physical characteristics of hazard events

    -spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people

    -Concentrated on a single area
  55. historical trends in hazard outcomes during 20th century
    -more people living in hazardous areas, more economic development. loss of life due to hazards has declined because of better warning systems, evacuation plans, predictive models, storm drains. economic loss due to hazards has increased- rescue attempts, damage, loss of tourism, cost of prevention measures.
  56. hurricanes in the U.S. since 1900
    Galveston Hurricane, San Felipe-Okeechobee Hurricane, Atlantic-Gulf Hurricane
  57. Santa Barbara Earthquake of 1925
    • -Magnitude 6.8
    • -resulted in thirteen casualties and destroyed the historic center of the city, with damage estimated at 8 million dollars.
  58. San Francisco Earthquake of 1906
    • -Fire broke out and raged for 3 days
    • -700 people dead/missing, 25,000 buildings destroyed
    • -"Great Fire of 1906"
  59. Hazard Perception
    -people's beliefs and attitudes about hazards- likelihood they will occur, consequences, preparation, expectation.
  60. Risk Perception

    Risk Assessment
    - lay person's perception of risk

    -use of statistical data, computational models, reasons/backgrounds/tools

    -often very big discordance between perception & assessment. ex: perception: riding in plane is more dangerous than car. not true
  61. Intuitive Statistics

    Discrediting risks
    -instinctive, or acting on what one feels to be true even without reason

    -Causes sub-optimal decision-making. -Tendency to discredit serious risks. don't take chance of hazards seriously
  62. Decision-making heuristics
    -Little rules of thumb that people have for decision-making at times of stress/not optimal thinking

    -For rapid decision making
    (tiger jumps out at you from a bush).
  63. availability heuristic
    -If you have a personal experience with a hazard, you have greater perception of risk (house burns down, more aware of fire danger). -Also: media pushed/influenced.
  64. gambler’s fallacy
    • -the belief in the non-independence of events that are actually independent.
    • -belief that events are based on previous events

    (pull slot machine, pays off person before you, you figure it won't pay out anymore. go to different machine). . (lightning never strikes twice).
  65. Residential Inertia
    -The desire to remain in one place, live in same house for long time, not move. caused by many factors
  66. Reciprocal interaction of humans and natural environment
    • -environments influence humans in good & bad ways
    • -Human beings are major cause of species extinction, but also protect them.
  67. Resources and hazards reflect human needs and values
    -Humans affect environment, turn it into resources

    -H
    umans<--> natural environment.
  68. Biosphere:

    Lithosphere
    Atmosphere
    Hydrosphere
    -On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically

    -is a layer of gases surrounding a material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body

    -
    Includes all the earth's water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater
  69. Biomes

    Ecosystems
    -Biosphere is divided into separate groups of biological communities called biomes


    -Interacting, self-containing communities adapted to local conditions
  70. Ozone in the Upper and Lower Atmosphere
    -Offers protection against sun's rays in upper atmosphere

    -When it is near the surface, it is one of the main components in smog and is damaging to plants and animals
  71. Deforestation

    Desertification
    -The clearing of land through total removal of forest cover

    -Extension
    of desert-like landscapes as a result of overgrazing, destruction of forests
  72. Crop rotation

    Hydrologic Cycle
    -The successive planting of different crops on the same land to improve soil fertility and help control insects and diseases.

    -System in which water is circulated by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
  73. Aquifers

    Sanitary Landfills
    -A porous, water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel below ground level

    -Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe
  74. Leachate

    Hazardous Wastes

    Toxic Wastes
    -solution formed by leaching, especially a solution containing contaminants picked up through the leaching of soil

    -Discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material that poses a substantial threat to human health or the environment when improperly stored

    • - Waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures
  75. Invasive Cane Toads
    • -In Australia, they are an invasive species
    • -Secretes poison
    • - depletion of native species that die eating cane toads; poisoning, etc

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