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associated with the governance of a country
Study of the organization and distribution
of political phenomena
- -Impact on other spatial components of society and culture
-an area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state
- -Occur when states disagree about documents that define a boundary
- -Disagreement between states over the control of surface areas
- -Disagreement over the control or use of shared resources
political status of Antarctica
- -Neither established government nor permanent population
- -Therefore, it is not a state
Microstate of Sealand
- -Unrecognized micronation
- -Claims that it is an independent country but that is doubtful
-entities that claim to be independent nations
or states but which are not recognized by world governments or major international organizations
-Study of how spatial relations among regions influence their current and past political activities and relations
-The study of geographic elements of organization and the result of elections
- -statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it.
- -Patterns of voting
-The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to changing patterns of population or changing legal requirements
-Redrawing district boundaries so that particular candidates have an advantage in that area
-one in which a racial or ethnic minority makes up a large-enough share of the electorate to assure that the community has a reasonable chance to elect the candidate of their choice.
Compactness of electoral districts
-Compactness is good, but also need to "represent smaller-group minorities" so, conflicts w/ compactness sometimes.
State as administrative region
-same as a country. internationally recognized, under own sovereign control. about 200 in world right now. a bounded territory.
Nation as a grouping of people
-A community of people with a common culture and territory, bound together by a set of shared beliefs and customers
Nation Homeland as thematic region
Nation homeland as cognitive region
- is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory
-A state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation
-Has uniform religion, language, or some other characteristic that binds the nation together
-Ex: Poland or Slovenia
-Forces that tend to bind together a state, promoting unity
-Forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state
-A movement by a dissident minority intent on achieving partial or total independence from the territory in which it occupies from the state with which it lies
-Ex: Movement of the French in Canada
-Open and covert action employing the inducement of fear and terror as a means of political coercion
Multi-state (supranational) organizations
-A type of multi-national organization where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states
-Used to describe the European Union
- -51 countries
- -Bring together the world's nations in international assembly and to promote world peace
- An economic and political union of 28 member states
that are located primarily in Europe
- -Links Canada, Mexico, and US in an economic community
- -Aimed at removing trade and movement restrictions among the countries
(CAFTA) eliminates barriers to trade
and investment among the seven signatories: Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States.
-An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
Internal Administrative Regions
-Administrative regions smaller than those of entire countries
-In provinces, states, counties, etc. school, sewage, electrical districts. mostly tracked through GIS. includes cadastral regions.
-Private property and real estate parcel boundary lines.
-Legal geography deals w/ border disputes
Largest and smallest states
Characteristic state shapes
- -Elongated (Norway)
- -Compact (Zimbabwe)
- -Prorupt (Thailand)
- -Fragmented (Philippines)
- -Perforated (South Africa)
- -A small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
- -Ex: Lesotho
- -A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
- -Ex: A strip of land that connects to a territory but extends into the other territory in the ocean
-A landlocked country is a country entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 48 landlocked countries
-Ex: Arizona, Alaska
- -The nucleus of a state
- -Contains its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity
-the area of a country, province, region
, or state
, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the government
Administrative boundaries (borders)
-Lines that establish the limit of each state's jurisdiction and authority
- -Ill-defined and fluctuating areas marking the effective end of a state's authority
- -Fuzzy boundaries of fxnl regions
- -In past civilizations
Natural (physical) boundaries
Geometric (artificial) boundaries
-Those based on recognizable physical features
, such as mountains, rivers, or lakes
Segments of parallels of latitude
or meridians of longitude
(Africa, Asia, Americas)
- -Ex: 49th parallel (Western portion of US/Canada border)
-A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in a place while people moved in to occupy the surroundings
-A boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that reflects the cultural characteristics of the bounded areas
Types of subsequent boundaries:
- -A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
- -Ex: Boundary drawn between Northern Ireland and Ireland
- -A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern
- -Ex: African countries (why there is so much genocide)
- -A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic and/or geopolitical criteria
- -usually includes areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources
- -Ex: drilling for oil
(United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
-The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources
-The gently sloping extension of submerged land bordering most coastlines and reaching seaward for varying distances up to 100 miles or more
-Most marine catch is made here
- -is a belt of coastal waters extending at most 12 nautical miles from the baseline of a coastal state
- -Seen as territory of the state
- -24 miles off the coast
- -Although a state does not have complete sovereignty in this zone, it can enforce customs, immigration, and sanitation laws, and has the right of hot pursuit out of territorial waters
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
High Seas (International Waters)
- -A zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
- -Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction
- -Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state
- -Any nation can exercise jurisdiction for piracy
- -The physical environment unaffected by human activities
- -Little or no "natural landscape" remains
-areas of Earth's terrestrial surface where direct human alteration of ecological patterns and processes is significant
- Because of human food for populations for food, shelter and other resources
and services including recreation and aesthetic needs.
Nature as "constructed"
-aren't humans "natural"? can humans "make" nature? is nature good? humans vs. nature.
-the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and their social and natural environment
-These interactions and changes create unplanned cultural landscapes and unwanted environmental conditions
-The view that the physical environment, particularly climate controls human action, molds human behavior, and conditions cultural development
-Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels.
-The view that cultures can develop any particular set of cultural traits independent of their environmental circumstance
-The more technologically advanced the culture, the more apparent is its impact on the natural landscape
-'Environmental hazard' is the state of events which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health.
-extreme: events of unusual magnitude. MAY OR MAY NOT be hazardous to people. hazard: an extreme event that IS hazardous to humans.
-a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement
Classifying Hazards as natural or anthropogenic
Natural- events in the environment that can harm humans
Anthropogenic- Human adaptions and location decisions (building homes in certain places) play a role in the destructiveness of hazards
Types of Natural Hazards
Types of Anthropogenic Hazards
-Flood, fire, earthquake, tornado hurricane
-Crime, civil disorder, terrorism, war, structure collapse, etc
Cause of hazards in nature, society, and technology
Classifying hazards by space-time parameters
frequency, duration, area/extent, speed of onset, spatial exertion, temporal space
Pervasive-intensive continuum for hazards
-Used to composite the physical characteristics of hazard events
-spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people
-Concentrated on a single area
historical trends in hazard outcomes during 20th century
-more people living in hazardous areas, more economic development. loss of life due to hazards has declined because of better warning systems, evacuation plans, predictive models, storm drains. economic loss due to hazards has increased- rescue attempts, damage, loss of tourism, cost of prevention measures.
hurricanes in the U.S. since 1900
Galveston Hurricane, San Felipe-Okeechobee Hurricane, Atlantic-Gulf Hurricane
Santa Barbara Earthquake of 1925
- -Magnitude 6.8
- -resulted in thirteen casualties and destroyed the historic center of the city, with damage estimated at 8 million dollars.
San Francisco Earthquake of 1906
- -Fire broke out and raged for 3 days
- -700 people dead/missing, 25,000 buildings destroyed
- -"Great Fire of 1906"
-people's beliefs and attitudes about hazards- likelihood they will occur, consequences, preparation, expectation.
- lay person's perception of risk
-use of statistical data, computational models, reasons/backgrounds/tools
-often very big discordance between perception & assessment. ex: perception: riding in plane is more dangerous than car. not true
-instinctive, or acting on what one feels to be true even without reason
-Causes sub-optimal decision-making. -Tendency to discredit serious risks. don't take chance of hazards seriously
-Little rules of thumb that people have for decision-making at times of stress/not optimal thinking
-For rapid decision making (tiger jumps out at you from a bush).
-If you have a personal experience with a hazard, you have greater perception of risk (house burns down, more aware of fire danger). -Also: media pushed/influenced.
- -the belief in the non-independence of events that are actually independent.
- -belief that events are based on previous events
(pull slot machine, pays off person before you, you figure it won't pay out anymore. go to different machine). . (lightning never strikes twice).
-The desire to remain in one place, live in same house for long time, not move. caused by many factors
Reciprocal interaction of humans and natural environment
- -environments influence humans in good & bad ways
- -Human beings are major cause of species extinction, but also protect them.
Resources and hazards reflect human needs and values
-Humans affect environment, turn it into resources
-Humans<--> natural environment.
-On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically
-is a layer of gases surrounding a material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body
- Includes all the earth's water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater
-Biosphere is divided into separate groups of biological communities called biomes
-Interacting, self-containing communities adapted to local conditions
Ozone in the Upper and Lower Atmosphere
-Offers protection against sun's rays in upper atmosphere
-When it is near the surface, it is one of the main components in smog and is damaging to plants and animals
-The clearing of land through total removal of forest cover
-Extension of desert-like landscapes as a result of overgrazing, destruction of forests
-The successive planting of different crops on the same land to improve soil fertility and help control insects and diseases.
-System in which water is circulated by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
-A porous, water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel below ground level
-Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe
-solution formed by leaching, especially a solution containing contaminants picked up through the leaching of soil
-Discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material
that poses a substantial threat to human health or the environment when improperly stored
that can cause death, injury or birth defects
to living creatures
Invasive Cane Toads
- -In Australia, they are an invasive species
- -Secretes poison
- - depletion of native species that die eating cane toads; poisoning, etc