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2013-12-11 05:56:01

pharm final
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  1. What is considered part of the central nervous system?
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  2. What is considered part of the Peripheral nervous system?
    • somatic (skeletal muscle)
    • autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic)
  3. What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
    • sends impulses to the visceral organs
    • functions automatically and continuously without conscience effort
  4. What is the primary function of the sympathetic nervous system?
    • concerned with preparing the body for stressful or emergency situations
    • stimulates responses that are needed and inhibits activities that can be delayed
  5. Which body functions does the sympathetic nervous system inhibits and what does it delay?
    • increases HR, BP, RR
    • decreases GI tract activities
  6. How doe adrenergic drugs primarily work?
    they mimic effects of the sympathetic effect. drugs like epi and nonepinephrine
  7. What two groups are classified as adrenergic drugs?
    • catecholamines
    • noncatacholamines
  8. Which drugs are considered catecholamine adrenergic drugs? (Each New Day All People Come Thru)
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
    • albuterol
    • phenylephrine (Dimetapp/Dristan)
    • clonidine (catapress)
    • terbutaline (Brethaire)
  9. What are the main uses for adrenergic drugs?
    • Ophthalmic-dilate pupils
    • nasal decongestants
    • respiratory-dilate the bronchioles
    • blood pressure-constrict peripheral blood vessels increase BP
    • increase heart rate
  10. What is the main use of Dopamine?
    @ low doses stimulates blood flow to the kidneys increasing output
  11. Which route of administration are no catecholamine adrenergic drugs not given?
    Oral form- digestive enzymes destroy drug
  12. What is the difference of noncatacholamines vs catecholamines drugs?
    • longer duration of action
    • oral form well tolerated
    • cross blood brain barrier
    • stimulates the adrenergic receptors directly
  13. What is the main usage of Albuterol, Isoproterinol, or Ephedrine?
    • treat nasal decongestion
    • dilate the bronchioles
  14. What is the main usage of mephentermine?
    • treats local or systemic constriction of blood vessels
    • treats hypotension in shock
  15. What is the purpose of taking terbutaline in labor and delivery?
    • smooth muscle relaxant
    • stop premature labor
  16. What are some common side effects of both catecholamine and noncatacholamines?
    • hypertension
    • tachycardia
    • palpitations
    • dysrhythmias
    • angina
    • tremors
    • dizziness
    • headaches
    • restlessness
    • insomnia
    • urinary retention
    • nausea/vomiting
  17. What is the main purpose of adrenergic blocking drugs?
    • used to disrupt the sympathetic nervous system
    • block impulse transmission at adrenergic neurons or receptor sites
  18. What are the two classification of adrenergic blocking drugs?
    • alpha-adrenergic blockers
    • beta-adrenergic blockers
  19. What is the function of adrenergic blocking drugs?
    • interfere or block storage and reuptake of catacholamine by neurons
    • relax smooth muscles in blood vessels
    • increase dilation of blood vessels
    • decrease blood pressure
  20. What is the main usage for Praosin drug?
    treat hypertension
  21. What is the main usage of Ergotamine drug?
    • treat peripheral vascular disorders
    • vascular headaches
  22. What are side effects to alpha-adrenergic blockers?
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • bradycardia
    • difficulty breathing
    • light headedness
    • flushing
  23. What is the mechanism of action with beta-adrenergic blockers?
    prevent stimulation of the SNS by inhibiting the action of catacholamine at beta-adrenergic receptor sites
  24. What are beta-adrenergic blockers primarily functions?
    • reduce BP
    • reduce HR
    • decrease force of contractions of the heart
    • reduce cardiac output
    • constrict bronchioles
    • constrict peripheral blood vessels
  25. What do beta-adrengeric blockers treat?
    • Angina
    • Hypertension
    • Supraventicular arrhythmias
    • anxiety
    • tremors
    • migraine headaches
    • open-angle glaucoma
  26. What are side effects to beta-adrenergic blockers?
    • hypotension
    • bradycardia
    • AV block
    • heart failure
    • bronchospasm
    • nausea/vomiting
    • constipation/diarrhea
  27. Which type of patients would a nurse want to question the MD order if a beta-adrenergic blocker is ordered?
    • patient with COPD-reduce cardiac output
    • patient with asthma-constrict bronchioles
  28. Before giving a patient a beta-adrenergic blocker. What are the main things the nurse needs to assess before giving?
    • Respiratory status
    • check apical pulse for <60
    • monitor BP
    • weight CHF patients
    • monitor blood glucose d/t masking signs of hypoglycemia
  29. What is the main purpose of cholinergic drugs?
    • mimic parasympathetic nerve stimulation
    • inhibits the action of acetylcholine
  30. What are the two classes of cholinergic drugs?
    • cholinergic agonists
    • anticholinesterase
  31. What is the main function of cholinergic agonists?
    mimic the action of acetylcholine
  32. What is the main function of anticholinesterase?
    inhibit the destruction of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptors
  33. What are the main indications for cholinergic agonists drugs?
    • increase the tone and contraction of the muscles of the bladder
    • increase the GI tract activity
    • constrict the pupils
    • treat salivary gland hypo function
  34. What types of disorders do cholinergic agonists help treat?
    • urinary retention
    • constipation
    • glaucoma
  35. Which anticholinergic drug is the most used?
    belladonna alkaloids
  36. What is a function of atropine?
    reduce oral, gastric, and respiratory secretions pre operative
  37. What is the function of Scopolamine?
    treat motion sickness
  38. What are functions of anticholinergic drugs?
    • prevent drop in HR casued by vagal nerve stimulation during anesthesia
    • treat sinus bradycardia
    • paralyze the cilliary muscles, dilate the pupils
    • reduce gastric, respiratory, and oral secretions pre op
    • treat motion sickness
  39. What are side effects to anticholinergic drugs?
    • dry mouth
    • blurred vision
    • reduced bronchial secretions
    • increased heart rate
    • decreased sweating
  40. If a patient is in Shock and needs medication which drug is the drug of choice?
  41. A patient is receiving beta 1 agonist drugs, what should the nurse be aware that these drugs cause and where are they located?
    • located in the heart
    • increase heart rate
    • increase cardiac contractility
    • increase renin secretion
  42. A patient is receiving beta 2 agonist drugs, what should the nurse be aware that these drugs cause and where are they located?
    • located in the smooth muscle of the bronchioles, arterioles, and visceral organs
    • vasodilation of blood vessels
    • cause glycogenolysis
    • relaxation of smooth muscles in GI tract, bronchioles, and uterus